North Central College - Naperville, IL

Poster Presentations

Poster Presentations9:30-10:30a.m.
Wentz Concert Hall, Fine Arts Center and Madden Theatre Lobbies
(listed alphabetically by first author)

Teen Magazine Analysis
Arlinda Bajrami ’12, Sociology
Advisor: Dr. Mara Berkland, Speech Communication

Magazines as a form of discourse, help maintain, transform or repair the social norms of femininity; as a result, many mainstream magazines support the maintenance of gender inequality. Mainstream teen magazines often perpetuate the expectation that young girls be dependent and deferential (to males) (Carpenter, 1998; Medley-Rath, 2007). An examination of two contemporary teen magazines, Seventeen and Teen Voices, explored the messages perpetuated to young girls from these magazines. Critical discourse analysis of Seventeen and Teen Voices focused on three columns that were consistent between both magazines and which are important to adolescent girls–relationships, education and health experiences. Results indicated that Seventeen maintained traditional gendered expectations for teen girls while Teen Voices attempted to transform these expectations, highlighting the understudied counter voice to dominant cultural messages and the potential opportunities for media to positively impact young women.

Determination of Caffeine in Commercial Coffee Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Anika Shain ’12, Anthropology, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Jeffrey Jankowski, Chemistry

Caffeine is a crystalline alkaloid that is found naturally in the plant Coffea Arabica and is widely used as a neural stimulant. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that caffeine content in commercial products need only be made available to the public if caffeine was used as an additive. Therefore, caffeine content in most retail coffee chain products is generally unknown. This study aimed to quantify the caffeine content in retail coffee brands and to determine the effects of different roasting and brewing conditions on caffeine concentration. Caffeine quantification was done using reverse-phase HPLC analysis. Results show that caffeine concentration varies by as much as 50 percent between brands. There is also a positive correlation between caffeine concentration and the degree of roasting to the coffee bean.

Is It Possible for A Woman To “Look” American Using Cosmetics and Clothing? A Comparative Study of Eastern European Immigrants and the Middle Class from 1870 to 1935
Alana Shuma ’12, History
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

This paper researches the influence of clothing and outward appearance through cosmetics by Eastern European immigrants, focusing on the South Side of Chicago as compared to middle-class women in the United States. It examines the difference in ethnic and class appearances by looking at how women celebrated their heritage through the wearing of native costumes during festival, political and religious celebrations. Taking into account the different Eastern European cultures from Albania, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and the Ukraine, changes in appearance will be examined to determine whether class or culture resulted in changes among women. Finally, the idea of Americanization will be considered to determine whether pressure among Eastern Europeans to be “American,” rather than a “greenhorn” was felt through their appearance.

Pullman, IL: An Ethnic Salad Bowl
Brian Failing ’14, History
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

In comparison to other industrial towns, Pullman, IL, presented a unique situation for immigrant groups. Instead of building their own neighborhood, George Pullman provided it for the immigrants. The inhabitants of Pullman, although part of the diverse ethnic groups that had settled in the Chicago region, came together to form a coherent neighborhood. The individual and communal actions of each ethnic group in Pullman are what allowed each to flourish within the town’s borders. This paper argues that ethnicity played a role in the relationship immigrants had with the town of Pullman and with George Pullman himself. Ethnic identity was preserved through individual ethnic groups, as well as communal organizations, which strengthened ethnic ties. The ethnic groups of Pullman are what provided an ethnic dimension to the town and allowed groups to be separate and united at the same time.

The Role of CheA Short in the Repellent Response of E. coli Chemotaxis
Brittany Rowe ’12, Biology
Megan Schrock ’13, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Christopher O'Connor, Biology

The cheA gene encodes for two proteins, CheAS and CheAL—a phenomenon which is found exclusively in enteric bacteria. These proteins are essential to bacterial chemotaxis in E. coli because they regulate the bacterium’s swimming pattern in response to stimuli in the environment. The bacterium changes direction more when a repellent is sensed and less as it senses an attractant. CheAL allows the bacteria to control the frequency of directional changes in response to a stimulus. CheAS is a relatively unstudied protein that forms a dimer with CheAL, but we are interested in studying the interaction between CheAS and CheZ, a phosphatase. We tested CheAS importance by comparing wild type CheAS and a mutant of cheA, in which CheAS cannot interact with CheZ, response to a repellent within the environment. Our results suggest that bacteria with mutated CheAS are unable to chemotax when they sense a stimulant in their environment.

The Effects of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on Pitching Performance in Baseball
Blake Schmucker ’13, Health and Physical Education, Athletic Training
Matt Hussey ’13, Health and Physical Education, Athletic Training Health and Physical Education
Advisor: Ms. Kendall Selsky,

Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit disorder (GIRD) has been researched extensively in overhead athletes, particularly in baseball pitchers. This lack of internal rotation has been linked to an increase in the occurrence of shoulder injuries. The majority of research related to GIRD has been focused on its relationship to shoulder injury. There is a lack of current research that examines the relationship of GIRD to pitching performance. The current research will study how range of motion (ROM) of the glenohumeral joint in 13 collegiate baseball pitchers affects throwing performance. Measurements of shoulder range of motion will be obtained pre- and mid-season. We will then compare the velocity, ERA, and strike percentage of each pitcher to the GIRD measurements and ROM. We will analyze the data in order to determine if there is a statistical correlation between GIRD and performance.

Changes in the Demand of Accounting: A Closer Look Over the Past Decade and Into the Future.
Carrie Myers ’12, Accounting, Business Management, Entrepreneurship
Advisor: Ms. Allison Hayes, Accounting

The career path of accounting is constantly changing. The change is due to new government laws, the technology that the world continually adjusts to, and new regulations set by different standards boards, both nationally and internationally. This project outlines the different topics over the past decade that have changed both the demand for accountants and the jobs they do. It also discusses possible future issues that will continue to affect this demand and the skills that are needed in these jobs. Discussed are topics such as Sarbanes-Oxley and the PCAOB, the change from U.S. GAAP to IFRS, and a survey from accountants currently in the field, summarizing their views on the changes in accounting.

The Forgotten Victims: World War II’s Effects on the Polish
Carolyn Englund ’12, Accounting, Public Accounting, Management
Advisor: Dr. David Fisher, Philosophy

On February 10, 1940, in Katusz, Poland, my grandmother and her family heard a knock on their door. This simple knock changed the course of their futures drastically; it was soldiers from the Red Army of Russia who were there to take them away from their home and be placed into work camps in Siberia. It is a common assumption that only individuals of Jewish descent were put into camps during World War II, but unfortunately that is not the case. World War II placed my grandmother on a devastating journey through camps in Siberia and Africa and caused her to experience the loss of her young son, husband and countless other family members and friends. This thesis encompasses my grandmother’s story as well as the stories of others in order to educate others about World War II’s forgotten victims.

America’s Play Deficit: Facing the Realities of an America Without Playgrounds
Cody Follis ’13, Political Science
Advisor: Mr. John Stanley, Speech Communication

Across the United States, adequate playgrounds are disappearing and turning communities into “play deserts.” Kaboom.org defines play deserts as “child-rich, playspace-poor neighborhoods.” Without adequate playgrounds, children are losing out on an environment that greatly enhances their quality of life and provides vital development in areas like creativity and social skills. The play context is ideal for supporting children’s creative and imaginative thought (Isenburg & Jalongo, 2006). This issue of play deserts runs far deeper than a matter of funding and therefore cannot be paid off. Rather, the issue must be acknowledged and resolved through civic engagement. If the United States wants to continue to rise to all challenges, it must invest in our play infrastructure at a time when America’s children are falling behind. This project analyzes the scope and causes of the problem, as well as offers solutions to eliminate these play deserts, while also revealing true-life examples.

Frederick Douglass and Racial Incongruity in the Chicago Tribune (1854-1874)
David DePino ’13, History, Political Science
Advisor: Dr. Bruce Janacek, History

One of the greatest orators of the 19th century was undoubtedly Frederick Douglass. Born a slave in Maryland in 1818, Douglass escaped these bonds and spent his life advocating against slavery and racism in the United States. As an African-American, Douglass consistently faced challenges from denial of access to racism from major media outlets. A major, nationally significant Republican newspaper was the Chicago Tribune, which reported on many of Douglass’ public appearances. But how could a media outlet explore the life and messages of an extremely intelligent and articulate African-American in a world that was filled with racism? This paper argues that publications like the Chicago Tribune had to negotiate the virtue, self-reliance and rhetorical genius of Douglass against the disadvantages he faced in the United States as an African-American.

The Effects of Survival Processing and Retention Interval on Memory
Emily E. Stewart ’13, Psychology, Spanish
Viviana Gutierrez ’13, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Daniel VanHorn, Psychology

Nairne, et al., (2007) showed that survival processing enhances memory performance compared to other types of deep processing. They suggested that survival processing is special and that the human memory system better allows us to remember fitness-relevant information. Our study examines the extent to which our memory system is tuned to deal with survival information. We look at whether the memory advantage observed with survival processing at short retention intervals holds over longer retention intervals. Participants rate each word based on a set of instructions that requires survival processing, deep processing or shallow processing. A distraction task follows the rating task. A surprise recognition memory test for the words rated at the beginning of the experiment is then administered after the distraction task, and another recognition memory test is given one week later. The data suggest that the survival processing memory advantage does hold for short and long retention intervals.

Nobilior Pomis: The Fruits of Latin-Japanese Translation
Erica Funkhouser ’12, Classical Civilization, Japanese
Advisor: Dr. Fukumi Matsubara, Japanese

This project is a translation of Ovid’s “Metamorphoses” from the original Latin into modern literary Japanese. While the translation of Latin into English has a long history and a rather set style, the translation of Latin into Japanese is a more recent and infrequent practice that, at times, appears to be finding its footing. Though a reader-centric translation method was used, there were still many challenges that arose while managing the two diverse cultures involved. These issues revealed key differences between Roman and Japanese animism, hierarchical structure (as portrayed through honorific speech) and lexicon trends. The strength of the shared Latin-English literary history also became clear, especially regarding willingness to make leaps of logic and in myth recognition. From this analysis, conclusions have been drawn concerning how Latin-Japanese translation practice can be improved for a product not only more publicly appealing, but textually loyal as well.

War Pigs
Giuseppe Pellicano ’12, Art: Studio Art
Advisor: Ms. Christine Rabenold, Art

The War Pigs series embodies characteristics I feel many politicians and people in power possess. There are nine heads, but by using a cast I made of an actual pig head, I am able to create more as these figures continue to represent their true nature. I chose to keep them nameless, but the act of hanging their heads on the wall as trophies signifies the acknowledgement of their existence. The pig suggests their laziness to fight their own battles as well as their greed exposed in campaigns to wage war. The horns and teeth represent their viciousness, while the use of white symbolizes their ability to disguise ulterior motives. Under such facade is the truth and, although they go to great lengths to mislead us, their manipulations and malice can still be seen. Why do we choose to overlook such qualities and continue to elect these characters?

Binding Analysis of Proteins and Phospholipids using 31P-NMR
Joseph Guenther ’13, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Nancy Peterson, Biology

Protein and phospholipid binding interactions are keys to the cellular construct, making up majority of the cell membrane. In our study we simulated such binding, using a chosen phospholipid L-α-Phosphatidylcholine and our protein Bovine Serum Albumin, and measured how this binding interaction affected the magnetic field around that of the phosphorus in the Phosphatidylcholine. We were able to study the difference in the magnetic field surrounding the bound and free ligand using the instrument 31P-NMR. Our results showed an ability to trace the binding of protein and phospholipid interaction using an instrument such as the NMR, but failed to show the expected linear fit on our Scatchard plot. We concluded that the phosphate group is involved with the binding; however, our experimental procedure must be altered to ensure reproducible and accurate data that would allow a Scatchard plot to show linear data.

Escherichia coli Deficient in an Isoaspartyl Protein Repair Enzyme Increase the Persister Fraction by a phoU-dependent Pathway
Sarah Ahn ’12, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Visick, Biology

Molecular damage to proteins is a result of aging and has been shown to be necessary for the long-term survival of several organisms. L-isoaspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PCM) detects and repairs one form, isoaspartyl damage. With evidence that PCM may function primarily in metabolically active subpopulations of stationary-phase E. coli, we investigated the effect a pcm deletion has on mutants known to decrease persisters, metabolically inactive and antibiotic-tolerant subpopulations of any genetically homogenous culture. Persisters were assayed by determining the ofloxacin-resistant fraction in stationary phase. A pcm deletion had a direct effect on the fraction, with a two-fold increase by 48 hours. Mutations in glpD resulted in reduced persisters; however, adding a pcm deletion reversed this phenotype and greatly increased the percentage of persisters. In a ∆phoU mutant, the pcm deletion did increase the persister fraction. These results may have implications in treatment of recurrent infections.

Relative and Absolute Pitch in the Choral Setting
Julie Jarosz ’12, Music: Vocal, Instrumental
Advisor: Dr. Ramona Wis, Music

Relative pitch is a skill that is common to most trained musicians. Absolute pitch, in its most pure form, is found in only a small percentage of people and is often thought to be a genetic trait, although studies have shown that the general population may be able learn this skill with the proper training. Both of these skills can be harnessed to benefit choral musicians in rehearsal and performance contexts. This study explores the concepts of relative and absolute pitch, suggests the implications of both for the choral music setting, determines skills related to relative and absolute pitch that can be developed by singers, and discusses how these skills can be developed and used within the choral rehearsal process. Implications for future research are suggested.

Be Fruitful and Multiply … but why?: Childfree Women and the State of Sex Education, Voluntary Sterilization and Societal Expectations
Jessica Kidd ’12, Art: Studio
Advisor: Dr. Wendy Koenig, Art

Should the option of childfree (Childless by Choice) be presented in sexual/health education classes and medical-related information? There is bias toward predominantly pro-natalist conceptions of women’s roles in society that ostracize the childfree decision, especially those seeking permanent sterilization. Thus, the bias leaves childfreedom as a topic unspoken about within education or treatment. Examining the state of sexual/health education for women and their ability to access proper education/treatments, how childfree women of all demographics are perceived by society, and the conflicting of messages both groups receive provides research into viewpoints of sexuality, childfreedom and women’s roles. Suggestions will be presented on how to combat these issues with a focus upon sterilized women or those seeking to be permanently sterilized to forgo all childbearing. Because there is scant research, if at all, it is original in its interest in the correlations of sex education and trends of childfreedom as an option.

Art That Loves You Back: Communication Through Technology in Art
Jessica Brewster ’12, Art: Studio Art
Advisor: Ms. Christine Rabenold, Art

This project explores the benefits of interacting with art. The sculpture Eels was designed an created to function similarly to Jan Hulsegge’s Snoezelen therapy in which fiber optic technology becomes a pathway to communication. In this sculpture pulsing light encourages relaxation. When the viewer speaks to the art, voice response software reacts to the patterns of the viewer’s speech and responds with a hypnotic, flickering light. The Eel acknowledges the voice of the viewer and forms a conversational relationship between the viewer and the artwork. The Eels operates as a safe sounding board through which the viewer can find and make meaning of the confusion of what’s said. The creative process involved in conceptualizing Eels demonstrates an innovative adaptation of psychological and artistic theories as well as optical technology. Eels creates a new kind of viewing experience. Traditional gallery conventions fall away and interaction with art is encouraged.

Arousal-Based Personality Traits and Cognitive Processing: The Effect of Introversion/Extraversion Upon Preference Recall
Jillian Brunner ’13, Psychology
Becky Kirk ’13, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr Mary Jean Lynch, Psychology

This study examined how external arousal (caffeine) and internal arousal (introversion/extraversion) affect recall of preferred and nonpreferred choices. Previous research has suggested that introverts develop fear conditioning more quickly than extraverts; this finding has been attributed to differential sensitivity to reward. More specifically, extraverts may be more sensitive to reward, while introverts may be more sensitive to nonreward and punishment and thus fear condition more quickly. In a double-blind, block randomization procedure, participants from Psychology 100 classes were assigned to caffeine or decaf conditions, given personality questionnaires, and asked to choose preferred vacation locations from a series of location pairs. Participants were later given an unexpected free recall test on all locations. It was hypothesized that extraverts would remember more preferred (rewarding) choices, while introverts would remember more nonpreferred (nonrewarding) items. Preliminary results suggest that caffeine, personality and their interaction did not affect total, percent preferred, or percent non preferred recall.

The Effect of Arousal-Based Personality Traits and Caffeine Upon Memory
Anitta Milloro ’13, Psychology, Religion
Rebecca Kirk ’13, Biochemistry
Jillian Brunner ’13, Psychology
Advisor: Dr Mary Jean Lynch, Psychology

This study examined how external arousal (caffeine) and internal arousal (introversion/extraversion) affect performance on a test of working memory. Performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal which depend on both internal and external sources. Introverts have higher levels of cortical arousal; they do not seek stimulation because they are close to their optimal level of arousal, while extraverts seek external stimulation because they have lower levels of arousal. In a double-blind, block randomization procedure, participants from Psychology 100 classes were assigned to the caffeine or decaf condition, given personality questionnaires, and completed an operations span task. They answered basic math questions out loud while trying to remember the order in which words had been shown to them. Preliminary results suggest that introverts have less working memory capacity than extraverts. Because caffeine had no effect, it is not clear that arousal is responsible for personality differences in working memory.

A Prevention Program to Improve Coping Skills and Bullying Behaviors
Jennifer Cook ’12, Psychology
Cassandra Shaker ’13, Biology, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Patricia Schacht, Psychology

Bullying has been shown to lead to negative outcomes in children. Victims of bullies tend to lack the coping skills to manage confrontation with bullies adaptively and successfully (Sapouna, Wolke, Vannini, Watson, Woods, Schneider, Enz, Hall, Paiva, Andre, Dautenhahn, & Aylett, 2010). Moreover, researchers Smith and Myron-Wilson (1998) found that coping skills can have a significant impact on how children deal with stressful situations. However, the current research examines how bullying behaviors influence children’s coping skills and their interactions at school. For this project, children will be given self-report questionnaires. Based on the collected data, we hope to answer how children perceive peer relational conflict and how this influences a child’s coping skills. We hypothesize that bullying behaviors will significantly impact children’s coping skills and interactions in school. Correlations and regressions will be utilized to examine predictors of coping skills and bullying behaviors.

Looking for the Last Universal Common Ancestor: A Bioinformatic Analysis of Ribosomal Proteins in Bacteria
Jocelyn Redlinski ’14, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Visick, Biology

The small subunits of ribosomes of all bacteria are assumed to have 21 proteins. Using bioinformatic techniques to study sequenced bacterial genomes, we found that four phyla (Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Thermotogae) lack ribosomal protein s21. We further examined representatives from these phyla for evidence of a common ancestor. The -C nucleotide pairing is the most stable and thus perhaps most ancient; Actinobacteria had a strong bias for G and C nucleotides. Variation in the amino acids used in ribosomal proteins was low in the Actinobacteria; since variation would increase through evolutionary time, this suggests an older genome. Protein coding on both DNA strands is characteristic of ancient species; the Actinobacteria genomes showed a strong possibility of an open reading frame on the antisense strand in the ribosomal protein region. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that the latest common ancestor of all living things may be within the Actinobacteria.

Embodying the Flesh: Altering Self-Perceptions and Sexuality Through the Korperwelten (Body Worlds) Project
Jessica Ennenbach ’13, Organizational Communication
Advisor: Dr. Jennifer Jackson, English

Being self-conscious about one’s sexuality isn’t simply a cultural construct or even an individualistic phenomenon. To be aware of the corporeal and its potential for human connection is a shared human experience. Despite our contemporary notions of self and public discourse, focusing on bodies as objects to be exhibited sparks controversies. This project examined an international exhibit known as “Korperwelten” or “Body Worlds,” which displays preserved, dissected human corpses as art. The plastinated post-mortal bodies are said to illuminate the soul by its very absence. Research implies that disputes stem from viewers animating these ambiguous body forms with our own human histories (Hirschauer). This project explores how self-perceptions, the life cycle, and sexuality are altered through this controversial exhibit.

Library Systems in Change: Examining the Merger of the Northern Illinois Library Systems
Katelyn Van Lankvelt ’12, English: Writing
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

By World War II, the local public library was part of communities across the United States. However, not even large libraries always have the resources they need. Starting in the 1960s, states established library systems to support libraries with reciprocal borrowing, consultant services, training, delivery and more. Library systems are vital in the modern world to ensure that librarians have the support and training they need. Illinois led in creating library systems; it had systems covering the entire state by the late 1960s. Changes rocked Illinois’ library systems; as of July 1, 2011, nine library systems in Illinois merged into two. Building from a literature review and through a series of interviews with library directors, library trustees and other public officials, this project explores the reasons for the mergers and the effect they will have on the place of public libraries in Illinois and in the United States more generally.

News Knows: To Cultivate is to Cope
Kayleigh Pryzgoda ’12, Interactive Media Studies: Convergent Media
Advisor: Dr. Stephen Macek, Speech Communication

Journalism as a writing-based craft and career is dying. Journalists are now required to be convergent media specialists: they must write, photograph, film and record the news, and present it using a variety of platforms, such as online, print or broadcast. Educational institutions that train prospective journalists must now learn how to adapt to an ever-changing news culture. This project investigates how journalism instruction at a few Chicago-based schools—North Central College, Columbia College, Medill of Northwestern University and Slane College of Communications at Bradley University—is changing in response to the current deconstruction and transformation of the journalism field. Using personal interviews with faculty and students, analysis of their courses and major requirements, and curricular proposals made by leading mass communication scholars, an attempt is made to describe and assess recent innovations in journalism education. The goal is to provide an arsenal of information that will be useful for future journalism students.

Prepare is Ready When You Are
Kathryn Yochem ’13, Entrepreneurship, Management, Marketing
Briana Olson ’13, Marketing, Speech Communication
Chris Norris ’13, Economics, Marketing
Emily Risher ’13, Entrepreneurship, Marketing
Miranda Wise ’13, Entrepreneurship, Marketing
Reid Hulett ’12, Marketing
Advisor: Dr. Brian Hanlon, Marketing

The collegiate Chapters Council of the American Marketing Association (AMA) runs an annual International Collegiate Case Competition. The 2011-2012 AMA Collegiate Case Competition was based on a new service concept called Prepare from the leader in education services, Pearson Learning Solutions. Prepare provides online, self-paced introductory and general education college-level courses to students. The program was developed to fight the growing problem of over enrollment in higher education schools, such as community colleges and state schools. The study researched the market for Prepare as well as developed a marketing plan which detailed the implementation of Prepare. The methods used to research Prepare included multiple interviews and focus groups as well as survey sampling. The results explained Prepare’s strengths and weaknesses in the market and also the advertisement used for the service. The research conducted placed in the top 20 internationally for the Collegiate Case Competition.

The Changing Role of Female Sexuality in Germany During the Weimar Republic
Kathryn Wuerstl ’12, East Asian Studies, History, Japanese
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf, German

After World War I the values and culture regarding sexuality in Germany drastically changed. The Weimar Republic was known for the changing gender and sexual identities (McCormick, 2001). Women and female sexuality played a more prominent role after World War I and this is shown in literature and films of the period; however, the people of Germany were unsure of this new role (Rowe, 2003). This new role for women challenged the preconceived notions of female sexuality. These changes in values are seen clearly in the films that were produced during the Weimar Republic. In the landmark film of German expression, “Metropolis” (1927), this study examines how the film reveals evolving views of sexuality. Through the protagonist Maria, who embodies both the old and progressive ideas of sexuality, “Metropolis” simultaneously challenges and reaffirms the roles of women in Germany during the 1920s.

National Tradition and Local Meaning: The Relevance of German Beer Culture
Louis Waldmeir ’13, German
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf, German

This project explores how small German craft breweries assist in the establishment of a German cultural identity; specifically, how one such brewery, Brauerei zum Klosterhof in Heidelberg, combines traditional and contemporary practices to promote new associations between regional and national identity. Because Germany has always been identified with beer, the fact that “German beer consumption has been in steady decline since the early 1990s” (Chase, 2008) suggests that the larger fabric of German culture may be shifting and changing as well. Research for this project was conducted during an internship at Klosterhof fall term 2011 and revealed how forward-thinking practices of this brewery, such as its decision to brew entirely organic beer, help to join regional conventions with national tradition. The arrival of progressive breweries like Klosterhof reveal that regional breweries are not only surviving, but also helping transform the way Germans perceive their heritage.

Francophones at the Political Fault Line: A Discourse Analysis of Minority French Advocate Parties in Brussels
Megan Shoemate ’13, French, Japanese
Advisor: Dr. Norval Bard, French

Modern Belgium is divided into two autonomous states: Flemish-speaking Flanders and French-speaking Wallonia and language is a flashpoint of conflict, particularly in politics. This study, conducted over a period of three weeks in Belgium, aimed to determine the level of hostility to the Flemish population present in the propaganda of two major French advocate parties (the UF and FDF), especially compared to the parties’ perception of their discourse. Guided by the work of theorists Moira Chimombo and James Gee, research included a discourse analysis of propaganda materials of both organizations to determine the rhetorical strategies of the groups, including, for instance, the proportion of negative to conciliatory language. Study found their discourse to be highly polarizing and emotional, significantly different from what officials claimed in interviews, serving as a detriment to their cause and a continuing source of hostility with the Flemish population.

The Enthesial Architecture of the Human Foot: An Analysis of Force-Bearing Tissues
Michelle Branigan ’13, Biochemistry
Madison Henry ’13, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Christopher O'Connor, Biology

Entheses in the human foot are vulnerable to stress and overuse due to their weight-bearing function. Sites that function greatly in weight-bearing would be expected to contain a higher percentage of fibrocartiliginous tissue, which dissipates stress away from the hard-soft tissue interface of the attachment site. In this project, the distal Achilles tendon and tibialis anterior tendon entheses have been examined through simple dissection of cadaveric specimens and histology. The hypothesis that enthesial tissue has a high percentage of force-bearing tissue and para-enthesial tissue has a low percentage of force-bearing tissue was investigated at these attachment sites. Data collected so far suggests a higher percentage of fibrocartilage at both enthesial sites compared to para-enthesial sites, and thicker fibrous bone was also observed at enthesial sites. This data may provide a greater understanding of the foot’s overall enthesial architecture, which may improve the planning of surgeries and rehabilitation programs.

The Effect of Arousal-Based Personality Traits and Caffeine on Cognitive Processes; Stroop Task
Michelle DePasquale ’14, Psychology
Anitta Milloro ’13, Psychology, Religious Studies
Lauren Perschau ’13, Psychology, Spanish
Jillian Brunner ’13, Psychology
Jami Crouch ’12, Psychology
Becky Kirk ’13, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Mary Jean Lynch, Psychology

This study examined how external arousal (caffeine) and internal arousal (introversion/extraversion) affect performance on an attention task. Performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal, which depend on both internal and external sources. Introverts have higher levels of cortical arousal; they do not seek stimulation because they are close to their optimal level of arousal. Extraverts seek external stimulation because they have lower levels of arousal. In a double-blind, block randomization procedure, participants from Psychology 100 classes were assigned to caffeine or decaf conditions, given personality questionnaires, and completed a Stroop attention task. For the Stroop, individuals named the font color of color words that either matched (for example, “blue” in blue font) or were mismatched (for example, “blue” in green font). Difference scores for the two conditions were analyzed. Preliminary results suggest that participants intermediate in arousal (extraverts on caffeine, introverts on placebo) showed the least disruption of attention.

Environmental Factors Affecting Optimum Enzymatic Activity of α-amylase
Megan Malone ’13, Biology
Tasha Hobbs ’13, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Nancy Peterson, Biology

Over the past several years, the North Central nutrition class had difficulty with an amylase experiment giving inconsistent and high variable results. It was hypothesized that small changes in reactant concentrations or reaction conditions might make the laboratory results more reproducible. The nutrition experiment asked students to determine the optimal pH and temperature conditions for α-amylase to catabolize the hydrolysis of starch into maltose and dextrin. The variables included starch, enzyme, iodine and the conditions included incubation time, temperature and pH. The starch, α-amylase, and iodine solutions were tested for reproducibility by doing multiple trials of the incubation time before moving onto the temperature and pH trials of the experiment. It was discovered that the source of problem with this lab came from starch and iodine solutions. Decreasing the starch to 0.25 percent and using KI salt in the iodine solution gave reproducible results.

A Discourse Analysis of Robespierre’s 1791 Speech Concerning Universal Male Suffrage
Mathew Powers ’13, History
Advisor: Dr. Norval Bard, History

The analysis of primary documents provides vital information into the past. Maximilien Robespierre’s speech before the French Constituent Assembly in March 1791 is one such document. Robespierre addressed the Assembly’s policy on suffrage and touched on key pressing issues at that particular moment of the French Revolution. However, the content of such documents alone does not permit one to discern the speaker’s emotions, personal ambitions, inflections of voice or provide us with information about the audience. This project, employs a variant of James Gee’s method of Discourse Analysis to analyze Robespierre’s speech on a deeper level. An analysis of the value of his diction and the historical situation suggests Robespierre used a powerful rhetorical strategy to convey urgency upon the Assembly concerning their responsibility and the imperative to construct an inclusive government, for all Frenchmen, before the opportunity ceased to exist.

Is Stream Restoration Effective?
Michelle Ruffatti ’13, Chemistry Andrew DuBois ’13, Biology
Calvin Troyer ’12, Biology
Valerie Gravelle ’14, Biology
Zunara Arif ’14, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Christine Weilhoefer, Biology

Human activities, including farming and development, have large impacts on the quality of natural streams. In order to remedy the effects of human activities, a stream restoration project was undertaken at Springbrook Prairie, Naperville, IL, in 2007-2008. The goal of the research was to examine how this stream restoration affected water chemistry, algal biomass and macroinvertebrate community structure. Water quality was improved in the restored sections of the stream. However, there was no significant difference in algal biomass or macroinvertebrate diversity between restored and unrestored sections of the stream. Results suggest that stream recovery after restoration is slow, with chemical attributes being improved but not biological attributes.

What Does It Mean To Be German: How the Scars of World War II and the Division of East and West Germany Left the German Youth of Today Struggling With Ideas of Their Own National Identity
Molly M Gstalter ’13, German
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf, German

Psychologist Hermann Rudolph wrote, “The Germans and their past: no really new theme there.” With a dark history of war, depression, Holocaust and division of land, the Federal Republic of Germany today continually struggles to overcome its past; however, its search for a new national identity is underway. Younger generations still feel at fault for events that occurred decades before their birth, and that guilt leaves their concept of national identity seemingly negative or nearly nonexistent. Through surveys and interviews addressing how national history is taught and discussed in Germany, this study investigates how schools have begun to change their students’ negative views of their country. By promoting positive notions of national identity at a young age, while still discussing the important historical events, schools have begun to change the negative connotations associated with Germany’s national identity and build a stronger sense of pride in its youth today.

Effects of PCM on Aggregated Proteins in E. coli
Michael Curtis ’12, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Visick, Biology

It has been shown that L-isoaspartyl protein carboxylmethyltransferase (PCM) is necessary for long-term survival of Escherichia coli under stressful conditions. PCM repairs proteins by converting the abnormal L-isoaspartyl amino acids back to the normal aspartate configuration. Unrepaired L-isoaspartyl damage has been linked to aging, autoimmunity, epilepsy and tumor progression. Project research suggest L-isoaspartyl damage has a synergistic effect in combination with oxidative stress, destabilizing the conformation of cellular proteins or inhibiting re-folding once unfolded. PCM mutants have approximately twice the normal amount of aggregated protein after five days of oxidative stress. Protocols were investigated to purify aggregated proteins to enhance the assay for future study of aggregated proteins. With these protocols, testing confirms whether the addition of PCM will speed up disaggregation of the aggregated proteins. Preliminary results suggest that an extract containing PCM allows more rapid breakdown of the aggregated proteins than a PCM-deficient extract.

Core Affect and the Component Process Theory: Advanced Models for Emotional Processing
Mitchell Graham ’12, Japanese, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Matthias Regan, English

While the James-Lange, Cannon-Bard and Shachter-Singer theories are typically used to understand emotional processing, Core affect and the Component Process theory can be utilized as more efficient and modern models. James, Lange, Cannon and Bard describe emotion as a function of response to outside stimuli, and Schachter and Singer recognize emotional composition through consistent cognitive evaluation and contextualization. These older models of emotional processing do not consider coincidence or motivational factors. The concept of core affect acts as a foundation for which emotional synthesis can begin by assigning stimuli according to scale factors of arousal and pleasure. Together, the component process model and core affect play integral roles in the formation of personality while simultaneously considering motivational influence of appraisal, where relevance, implication, coping potential and significance interconnect. These more innovative approaches act as functional archetypes for emotional processing, enhancing understanding of the damaging effects of personality and affect disorders.

Analysis of Regular and Decaf Coffee for Caffeine Content Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Becky Kirk ’13, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Jeffrey Jankowski, Chemistry

A student research group interested in the effects of arousal on cognitive performance needed to determine how to brew a cup of coffee with twice the caffeine (about 200mg) of a typical cup. Using HPLC and a variety of coffee ground to water ratios, it was determined that brewing 80.0g of Folder’s™ Classic Coffee with 1500mL tap water in a traditional drip coffeemaker results in a 151.18mL cup of coffee with 200mg caffeine (about 5.1 oz). In the double-blind cognitive experiment, control groups received decaf coffee prepared in identical ratios as the caffeinated coffee. Using HPLC and Standard Additions methods to improve quantitation of the chromatographic peak, it was determined that an identically brewed 151.18mL cup of decaffeinated coffee contains only 48.46mg caffeine. The HPLC methods developed allow for extremely accurate determination of caffeine consumption, and suggest that the research group should set lower caffeine controls to effectively manipulate arousal.

The Irrelevant Speech Effect: Is Studying With Music Really That Bad?
Ryan Mueller ’12, Psychology, Spanish
Advisor: Dr. Daniel VanHorn, Psychology

The irrelevant speech effect refers to the finding that speech sounds (even irrelevant background speech) presented while studying impair later memory performance. According to Baddeley’s working memory model, the irrelevant speech effect occurs because irrelevant speech gets into the phonological loop (where the information being studied is stored) and causes interference. This interference makes it harder to recall the studied material (Salamé & Baddeley, 1989). Previous research with the irrelevant speech effect suggests listening to vocal music (a form of irrelevant speech) while studying impairs memory performance (Perham & Vizard, 2010). Most research done with the irrelevant speech effect has been conducted in laboratory settings, so we wanted to know whether the irrelevant speech effect would generalize to realistic study environments, such as a campus coffeehouse. We hypothesize that studying at the coffeehouse will mitigate some of the irrelevant speech effect and make listening to music while studying less harmful.

Shadows of Socialism: Surveillance Culture in the GDR and the USA
Rebecca Margaret Seraphine Samson ’12, German
Advisor: Dr. Sean Labbe, English

“Secrecy, intrusion, red,” represent negative impressions of surveillance in socialist East Germany. “Terrorism, national security, sacrifice,” represent positive reactions to American surveillance. In this study of surveillance in the United States and the GDR, socialist methodology is compared with democratic methodology of surveillance: the American motivation for surveillance is the same as in the GDR—the survival of the State. Susanne Fritsche’s laws for the Thaelmann Pioneers were translated from German and compared to the Girl Scouts USA laws, and no difference was found suggesting that enculturation prepared individuals to give up privacy for protection. Furthermore, physical methods of surveillance in States, such as “bugs,” were compared and there was no difference outside modernized technology. Conclusively, both the USA and the GDR revoke civil liberties to protect the state, regardless of socialism or democracy.

George F. Kennan, the Long Telegram, and the Origins of Containment
Ray Treonis ’12, Social Science: History
Advisor: Dr. Bruce Janacek, History

George F. Kennan, an American diplomat and advisor, was the individual most responsible for the creation of containment strategy, one of the most important foreign policies of the United States during the Cold War. In his “Long Telegram” (1946) and reiterated in “Sources of Soviet Conduct” (1947) he identified problems with the U.S.-Soviet post-war relationship and introduced a response to Soviet expansionism that reverberated through the highest levels of government. Critics of Kennan have stated that as a second-tier policy maker he was not the principal architect of containment strategy. However, close examination of Kennan’s writings and U.S. policies shows that while he could not control how containment was implemented, his suggestions in the “Long Telegram” and “Sources of Soviet Conduct” were extremely influential to those tasked with crafting U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union.

Hand Scan Analysis of NOvA Neutrino Data
Ryan Murphy ’13, Physics
Christopher Halverson ’13, Mathematics
Advisor: Dr. Paul Bloom, Physics

Neutrinos are sub-atomic particles that interact via only the weak nuclear force. They are the least understood particle in the standard model. Only recently it was discovered that neutrinos have non-zero mass. The NOvA experiment at Fermilab is designed to measure some of the properties of neutrinos. Specifically, NOvA is designed to observe the oscillation of muon neutrinos into electron neutrinos. During summer 2011, a “hand scan” analysis of simulated and beam data from the prototype NOvA (NDOS) detector was conducted. In this analysis a computerized event display was used to visualize the electronic response of the detector to a neutrino interaction. Based on the observed characteristics, the types of interactions were classified. The purpose of this analysis was to identify control samples in the data that could be used for the development of future analysis techniques.

Psychological Treatment Preferences Among Residents in a Nursing Home
Sevil Arin ’12, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Leila Azarbad, Psychology

Individuals in counseling often have preferences for the type of psychological intervention that they receive (individual vs. group treatment). However, the issue of treatment preference has not been widely studied among individuals hospitalized in a psychiatric nursing home. The purpose of the study was to (a) examine treatment preferences among inpatient residents with mental illnesses, and (b) explore the various factors, such as psychiatric diagnosis, age, gender, ethnicity and introversion/extraversion that may influence their preference for individual or group therapy. Participants included 27 individuals hospitalized at Wood Glen Pavilion, a skilled nursing facility that provides long-term care of both medical and psychiatric conditions. Participants were administered a modified version of the Psychotherapy Preferences and Experiences Questionnaire, which examined participants’ preference for psychological intervention, as well a short version of the Eysenck Introversion/Extraversion Scale. Results and implications will be discussed.

Metropolis: A Cinematic Representation of Fear and Doubt Within Germany’s Weimar Republic
Virginia Ann Kain ’13, German, International Business
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf, German

Fritz Lang’s Film “Metropolis” (1927) is a German science fiction silent film and is regarded a masterpiece of its time (Sanders, 2008). “Metropolis” depicts a futuristic cityscape dreamed by the city’s leaders and built by the hands of forgotten workers who toil in agony among the city depths. This paper explores the film as Lang’s depiction of how political unrest during Germany’s Weimar Republic created fear and mistrust, causing the citizens to become xenophobic and susceptible to violence and hate. Through the use of scholarly sources and an analysis of the film in its newest restored edition, a comparison was made between the social class conflicts in “Metropolis” and that of the Weimar Republic. The research implicates a strong correlation between the political and social occurrences depicted in “Metropolis” and those in the Weimar Republic during and after the film’s production.

Excellence in Early Literacy: The Implications and Effects of Scotland’s ‘A Curriculum for Excellence’ in Early Literacy Education
Veronica Blue ’12, Elementary Education
Advisor: Dr. Shwuyi Leu, Education

Through case study research at two public schools near Stirling, Scotland, evidence was collected that provides a snapshot of primary literacy education underneath Scotland’s new national curriculum: A Curriculum for Excellence (CfE). The project intended to investigate how the new policy is put into practice in primary classroom literacy instruction, citing observed instructional strategies, teacher commentary from interviews, and the documents in which the CfE framework is published as evidence. Data analysis revealed three themes upon which the two case schools built their literacy curriculum, allowing them to successfully implement the tenants of CfE. Through appropriate instructional strategies, common values between the teachers studied and those inherent in the curriculum, and teacher support for change, the two schools successfully achieved the goals of CfE—to build successful learners, confident individuals, effective contributors and responsible citizens.

The Electability of Quoting Our Founding Fathers
William Miller ’12, History, Political Science
Advisor: Dr. Stephen Maynard Caliendo, Political Science

Tea Party candidates first ran for political office in 2010 and heavily relied upon historical frames to get their ideas out to the American public. Politicians create frames to trigger certain preset responses from citizens on issues in order to motivate citizens to act in specific ways. This research explores how Tea Party candidates for Congress in 2010 framed policy and social issues by using themes and ideas from America’s founding generation. Speeches, campaign ads and websites of six candidates were examined and coded for content, such as whether a founder was named or quoted and whether a founding ideal, such as liberty or freedom, was invoked. Findings are correlated with the electoral success of these six candidates. This research has implications for understanding strategies of Tea Party candidates and the political impact of historical frames in campaign discourse.

Correlation vs Causation: How Students Intend to Change Their Behavior Based on the Verb Phrase in a Headline
Yekaterina Rudenya ’13, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Heather Coon, Psychology

Previous research has shown that college students cannot distinguish well between causal and correlational headlines. This study was conducted to find out if people exposed to a causal verb in a headline are more likely than those exposed to a correlational verb to want to change their behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition, receiving one of the three versions of the survey: causal (“Drinking about eight glasses of water a day causes a more fit body”), correlational (“Drinking about eight glasses of water a day is correlated with a more fit body”), or no headline. They were then asked about their attitudes toward and intentions to change their behavior regarding water consumption. Results indicated no significant differences among the conditions on these outcomes. Whether such results are due to a poor headline topic or the actual absence of a link between the two variables is unclear.

Development Projects in India and Indigenous Displacement
Amanda Marek ’13 Entrepreneurship, Management
Molly Ryan ’12, Business Management, Management
Andrew McKinley ’12, Sports Management, Management
Izabella Nagy ’12, Accounting
Steven Motsinger ’11, Management
Advisor: Dr. Robert Moussetis, International Business

India has been targeted as one of the major sites for developmental dam projects. These projects are means to restore access to water and electricity, but are putting indigenous groups’ livelihood at risk. This paper examines the Narmada Valley Development Project and its impact on the human rights of the indigenous people of India. Specifically, this paper evaluates indigenous displacement—and its implications—as a result of the development projects generated by the trend toward globalization. While meant to bring a higher standard of living to the people of India, the development projects sacrifice the rights of the indigenous people for the sake of economic development. Prior to these projects, the majority of Indians were self-sustaining; now, their survival depends on meager aid from the government. This paper concludes by taking a business perspective on the issue. It analyzes the human rights issues and proposes suggestions for organizations considering investment in development projects similar to those in India.

The Lakota Sioux and the Struggle for Sovereignty with the United States Government
Emily Rademaker ’12, Classical Civilization, German
Advisor: Dr. Matthew Krystal, Anthropology

The Sioux Nation faces extreme poverty and social and political repression. The central dilemma for the Nation today is one of self-definition and autonomy. In summer 2005, the struggles within the Pine Ridge Reservation, home to approximately 40,000 Sioux, were observed. Inspired by the activist efforts of the Sioux Nation, interviews of Reservation residents were conducted in summer 2011 and the Lakota peoples’ diverse methods of nation preservation wre observed. This presentation provides insight into how the Lakota Sioux peoples and allies maintain consistent labors to assert themselves as independent, overcome their “Reservation problem,” and reclaim their self-sufficiency, culture and lives. By promoting accurate representations of Lakota culture and building awareness about social injustices occurring within the Lakota communities, this activism may yield tangible and significant results for the U.S. and Lakota relationship in the near future.