North Central College - Naperville, IL

Oral Presentations

2012 Oral Presentations
Session 1: 10:45 - 11:30 a.m. Session 2: 11:45 a.m. - 12:30 p.m.
Goldspohn Hall and White Activities Center

Session 1: 10:45 - 11:30 a.m.

The Study of Extreme Violence and Individual Excess

Tuning in to the RTLM: How the Evolution of Language Influenced Perception and Encouraged Participation in the Rwandan Genocide
Bree Roozen ’12, Political Science Advisor: Dr. William Muck, Political Science

In spring 1994, Rwanda faced a pandemic of violence as approximately 800,000 people were killed over a period of 100 days. The roots of the violence have been traced to government attitudes, military support and private propaganda media campaigns. Academics have spent more than a decade arguing the impact of the Radio-Television Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) on the public participation in the mass slaughter during the Rwandan genocide. In an effort to understand the evolution of the RTLM, the project included travel to Rwanda to conduct archival research at the Kigali Memorial Center Library, which houses the most comprehensive collection of information on the Rwandan genocide. Through categorization of each broadcast, how the RTLM inflamed domestic tension before and during the genocide by evolving specific language, broadcasting racially charged messages, and urging public participation in the systematic eradication of the Tutsi people has been documented.

The Wari Empire: Research on Patterns of Violence Through Cranial Analysis in the Callejon de Huaylas Valley, Peru
Jessica Pantel ’13, Anthropology Advisor: Dr. Marisa Fontana, Sociology

This paper discusses the results of a preliminary study of cranial trauma from the north-central highlands of the Peruvian Andes. The purpose was to determine the level of violence evident in this region during the Middle Horizon epoch (AD 550/600 - 1000) and determine any similarities or contradictions with known Wari violence patterns. Of the crania that were examined, five exhibited signs of cranial modification, two exhibited signs of trephination, and five exhibited signs of blunt force trauma. A sherd of pottery uncovered at the site, believed to be imitation Wari, hints at a possible but slight Wari influence in the region, supporting the preliminary hypothesis that violence shown on the crania may have been inflicted by the Wari culture.

Under the Circumstances: An Oulipian Exploration of the Rhetorical Argument
Katherine Legner ’12, English: Writing, Theatre
Cassandra Nelson ’14, Music: Theatre
Kyle Ryan ’15, Theatre, Broadcasting
Advisor: Dr. Sara Eaton, English

The Oulipo was an avant garde French writing movement whose members, by putting strict guidelines on their writing to challenge their own imagination, devised such abstract creations as a novel completely devoid of the letter ‘e.’ The idea was that, by limiting choices, they might be able to better explore language and the creative process. The original play Under the Circumstances was written with these Oulipian ideals in mind. It takes the shape of a rhetorical argument under the premise that “under certain circumstances” anyone would do anything. The playwright and actors were forced to explore what it takes for a person to do the unthinkable. Anyone is capable of murder, of rape, of infidelity. But, the play seeks to explore under what circumstances a person would act on those capabilities.

Blacks and Whites United Against the Poor: The Hyde Park Plan to Insulate Itself from Surrounding Poverty
Arlinda Bajrami ’12, Sociology
Doug Engelman ’12, Sociology
Rebecca Wagoner ’12, Sociology
Jorden Hall ’12, Sociology
Advisor: Dr. Louis Corsino, Sociology

This study is the first to analyze both the unique physical and social aspects of Hyde Park in a way that applies the “Production of Space” theories of sociologist Henri LeFebvre. It concludes that primarily through the efforts of the University of Chicago, the middle-class white academics have aligned with the middle-class black residents to construct both physical and social barriers among themselves and the poorer neighbors, thus preventing intrusion by these poorer residents into the social and geographic spaces of the area. The analysis is based upon a review of historical documents, interviews with Hyde Park residents and workers, the creation and collection of “mental maps” and an ethnographic observation of “lived spaces.”

From Cultural Necessity to a ‘Peculiar’ Predicament: The Story of
Native American Captivity in the Ohio River Valley and Southern Great Lakes From 1776-1812
Alexis Smith ’12, History
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

Whether to replace a departed family member or to maintain warrior status, Native American captivity began as a cultural process. However, as the 19th century approached, terms such as “slave” become evident in the lives of these settlers, referencing their function within Indian villages. Their stories become tales of torturous experiences rather than tales of cultural discomfort, if not accepted immersion. To examine the shifting role of captivity, this project employs the use of captivity narratives, presenting the stories of those who lived among the Indians and compares findings to the Southern story of captivity. As Christina Snyder notes, when societal conventions of race became evident, the process of captive selection was altered to a more established form of bondage: slavery. Findings suggest that this pattern was apparent in the North, emphasizing that the prevalent societal concept of race during this time had a profound impact on this process.

Stranger than Fiction: Deconstructing the Novel
Moderator: Dr. Sohinee Roy, English Location: Goldspohn 31

The “Good-Natur’d Reader”: Alienation in Henry Fielding’s “Joseph Andrews”
Colin Loeffler ’14, English: Literature
Advisor Dr. Martha Bohrer, English

Current critical analysis of “Joseph Andrews” focuses on the function of the intrusive narrator. Notwithstanding its value, such criticism overlooks the relationship between narrator and reader. This analysis demonstrates that some of Fielding’s chapter titles anticipate the reader’s emotion and even presuppose an ideal reader, while other titles, which explain the chapter’s content, attempt to alienate said reader from focusing exclusively on the novel’s plot. Using Bertolt Brecht’s “alienation effect,” a technique that aims to prevent the audience from forming a strong emotional attachment to the characters in order to highlight the text’s social issues, this paper argues that Fielding successfully creates and alienates the reader based on his performance as a narrator in his chapter titles, and in the novel itself. The reader Fielding imagines should thus be more attentive to how society worked (or didn’t work) in the 18th century than to a successful union of Joseph and Fanny.

The Horrors of Time Travel in Wells, Lovecraft and King
Ryan Opalk ’13, English: Writing
Advisor: Dr. Lisa Long, English

This paper connects a sub-genre of science fiction—literature about time travel—to the psychological aspects involved with the nature and appeal of horror. Because science fiction is typically seen as a lowbrow genre, it is seldom treated in traditional literary criticism. This paper applies Freud’s psychoanalytic theories of the “uncanny” to a range of 20th century time travel fictions, while also exploring how time travel writers themselves talk about horror in their work. In particular, it explores how H.G. Wells in “The Time Machine” (1895), H.P. Lovecraft in “Shadow out of Time” (1935) and Stephen King in “The Langoliers” (1990) make implicit and terrifying claims about time and reality, which damage the audience’s relationship with the world around them and alienates readers from their present realities. These claims, that reality is not all it appears to be, push the mundane into the realm of the unfamiliar, thus generating a sense of uncanniness. Given their persistent popularity, it is important to understand why stories with these types of revolting implications are actively pursued as forms of entertainment by mass audiences, yet do not merit the interest of literary critics.

The Handmaid’s Tale and The Hunger Games: Survival in a Contextual Dystopia
Kelly Noel Rasmussen ’14, English: Writing
Advisor: Dr. Zachary Michael Jack, English

Using audiovisual materials, a literary analysis is presented of two well-known dystopian novels: the contemporary classic “The Handmaid’s Tale” by Margaret Atwood (1985) and the recent best-selling young adult trilogy “The Hunger Games” by Suzanne Collins (2008-2010). Focusing on themes of survival within the two dystopian worlds—the Republic of Gilead and Panem, respectively—David Ketterer’s essay “The Handmaid’s Tale: A Contextual Dystopia” is adopted as a framework to analyze how the sociopolitical structures in Collins’ and Atwood’s works help construct the main character’s fight for survival. Since both “The Hunger Games” trilogy and “The Handmaid’s Tale” end with the dissolution of their respective dystopian societies, this paper applies Ketterer’s definition of the contextual dystopia to Collins’ works and explains how both “The Hunger Games” and “The Handmaid’s Tale” differ from the traditional dystopian novel.

Fostering Citizenship and Identity in the Windy City
Moderator: Dr. Luke Franks, History Location: Goldspohn 33

Communities within Chicago: The Formation of the Polish and Swedish Immigrant Communities
Victoria Volckmann ’13, Management
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

From 1860-1930, Chicago was a major immigration destination, with various ethnicities forming separate communities within Chicago for social and cultural reasons. This research project focuses on two immigrant groups, Poles and Swedes, to examine the different ways these ethnicities formed communities. Historically there is a greater sense of Polish community within Chicago (known as Polonia) than there is of a Swedish community, although Chicago had large populations of both ethnicities. To fully understand the current perspective of these ethnicities and their influence on Chicago, the historical roles of Poles and Swedes in Chicago must be explored. This research argues that several factors, including religion, organizational differences and geographic position, led to two very different communities being created. Utilizing the primary source of the Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey, this project compares and contrasts the formation of community within the Polish and Swedish immigrant groups.

The Assyrian Dream: How Assyrians Use American Patriotism to Foster Assyrian Nationalism
Ashley Cherven-Cook ’12, Anthropology
Advisor: Dr. Matthew Krystal, Anthropology

The Assyrian population of Illinois has been using the ideals of the American dream to perpetuate the Assyrian dream. According to their self-proclaimed history, Assyrians are descendants of ancient Mesopotamia and were among the first to adopt Christianity in 33 CE. They came to Chicago as part of the Assyrian Diaspora in the early part of the 20th century, following a wave of Assyrian Genocides in their homeland between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. As such, among their goals is to create an autonomous state in Iraq, free of the outside oppression that led to multiple attempted ethnocides and genocides. This project describes the culture of the Chicagoland Assyrian populations based on ethnographic research. Specifically, it addresses how Assyrian-Americans have been working to maintain their culture and their hope for an independent Assyria, and discusses their framing of American patriotism in terms of Assyrian nationalism.

The Rebel Yell: Pullman’s Paternalism and Reaction to Paternalism in the 1894 Pullman Strike
Amy Pacheco ’12, Social Science/History
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

Late 19th century Chicago saw big business and labor forces; thus began the trend to create neighborhoods for their workers. The town of Pullman on the South Side developed as a model company under the paternalistic ownership of George Pullman. The 1894 strike showed the problems with this ownership and the unrest within the town; the workers banded together to form a social movement with the help of the American Railway Union. My research focuses on the 1894 strike as a social movement, and how Pullman’s paternalism served as a cause for the strike. Research explores this social movement through the city’s newspapers, Strike Commissioner Report, prominent Pullman boarders’ writings, pamphlets published about Pullman and Jane Addams’ memoirs. The Pullman strike was not only a labor conflict, but belongs to a wider range of paternalistic reform unique to this time period and shared by many members of Chicago’s prominent citizens.

Globalization 101: The State of the Global Marketplace
Moderator: Dr. Doh-Khul Kim, Economics and Finance Location: Goldspohn 35

Act Local, Think Global: Integrating Into the Chinese Market
Katherine Hoekstra ’13, Entrepreneurship, Management
Kaitlyn Rossi ’13, Accounting: Certified Public Accountant
Kelsey Brummel ’13, Marketing
Advisor: Dr. Robert Moussetis, International Business

In today’s dynamic business environment, it is essential that companies maintain a competitive advantage to ensure success. This can be done by exploring foreign markets and introducing a product line into these markets after substantial research. Before a company can successfully go abroad, in-depth analysis of the foreign environment must be done to secure an effective implementation. Through secondary research, an analysis was compiled of the Chinese luxury baby product market for the use of Itzy Ritzy as it prepares to export its products globally. This analysis consists of examinations of the political and economic environments in China as well as the consumer trends of the citizens in the country. Research resulted in an exporting strategy for the company, which lays the foundation for smooth integration of its product line into the Chinese market, guaranteeing a competitive advantage for the company.

The Effectiveness of Precious Metals and Other Commodities on Hedging Inflation
Eric McKee ’12, Actuarial Science, Classical Civilization, Finance
Advisor: Dr. Doh-Khul Kim, Economics and Finance

During the recent financial crisis (2007-2009), the Federal Reserve adopted and maintained an expansionary monetary policy. Traditionally, such a policy comes at the cost of inflation. Investors have protected themselves from inflation with precious metals, because demand for tangible assets is expected to rise in an inflationary environment. This research investigates the use of precious metals and commodities as a method of hedging inflation. Previous studies on precious metals found mixed results and this research extended the analysis to other commodities in order to improve the robustness of the findings. The regression results indicate that except for oil and coal, precious metals and other commodities do not have any meaningful short-term relationships with inflation. Hence, this study suggests that these products have not been effective in hedging inflation over the last 30 years.

Amazing Journey: Exploring Culture and Economy Through Film
Amanda Marek ’13, Entrepreneurship, Management
Haley Kirk ’13, Global Studies: Developing States, Spanish
Advisor: Dr. Matthew Krystal, Anthropology

The majority of ethnographic research is presented in a conventional written format. In summer 2011, a team of North Central students and professors from a range of disciplines made a trip to Guatemala to investigate the economic and cultural dimensions of textile production, tourism and subsistence maize farming (milpa). The goal of this research is to produce a series of films on the Highland Mayan economy. This paper focuses on the production of these films and addresss the benefits and obstacles of using film as a means to represent the findings. Specifically, it emphasizes the educational benefits, not only for the consumers of the final product, but for the researchers as well. Previous research on the subject of maize production suggests that it is an unsustainable way of life. Through filming the maize production process we demonstrate its continued economic and cultural importance.

Exploring the Social and Normative Elements of Humanity
Moderator: Dr. Timothy Morris, Philosophy Location: Goldspohn 11

The Social Meaning of the Divine Image: A Comparative Study of the Theological Anthropologies of Kallistos Ware and Reinhold Niebuhr.
Luke Kinney ’12, English: Literature, Religious Studies
Advisor: Dr. Perry Hamalis, Religious Studies

This study explores the divine image in Christianity and seeks to forward the discussion beyond differences between Roman Catholics and Protestants by examining the “divine image” through the lenses of Eastern Orthodox theologian Kallistos Ware and the Protestant Neo-Orthodox theologian Reinhold Niebuhr. For these thinkers, the divine image is not some meaningless theological concept, but has concrete implications for personal and communal life. Ware’s emphasis on humanity being made in the image of a Triune God leads to a normative view of community. Niebuhr, too, focuses on the social implications of the divine image, but with a realism grounded in his profound account of sin’s depth and dynamics within human institutions. Comparing these thinkers sheds new light on the social meaning of being created “in the divine image.” This study both advances the scholarship on two major religious thinkers and the view that religious claims can illuminate broader social issues.

Burial in “The Spanish Tragedy” and “Titus Andronicus”
Ezra Mintao Chang ’12, English: Literature
Advisor: Dr. Sara Eaton, English

Thomas Kyd, playwright and contemporary of Shakespeare, was arrested by Elizabethan agents on accusations of “mutinous libels” in an era that viewed art and life as inseparable. This paper presents a close reading of Kyd’s “The Spanish Tragedy” in comparison with Shakespeare’s “Titus Andronicus” that traces the usage of burial rites through both plays to discover “where the bodies are buried.” Observance of death’s decorum communicates philosophies of societies and individuals about life, death and morality; changes in these observances indicate shifts in belief. While the rites and rationales within both dramas are initially similar, the plays ultimately present different outlooks on the afterlife and its ramifications for living. In the final analysis, Kyd’s antagonism toward norms and authority can’t be left unquestioned; while Shakespeare’s heroes opt to restore society and thus live on in its memory, Kyd’s protagonists would see the world burn to obtain eternal justice.

Western Electric’s Welfare Capitalism Machine: A Study in the Socialization of Immigrants
Alex Jaczak ’13, Finance, Management
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

Welfare capitalism was an attempt by Western Electric to socialize ethnic workers and gain their loyalty; this relationship required the trust of ethnic workers. This trust was breached in the Bohemian community when the “Eastland” disaster occurred because the Bohemian community was very affected by the disaster. The “Eastland” was a ship chartered by Western Electric that capsized and killed more than 1,000 individuals. Using both historical secondary sources, as well as newspaper articles from the Chicago Foreign Language Press, this paper explores the relationship between Western Electric and welfare capitalism. Some vital questions to ask are: What did Western Electric’s welfare capitalism offer ethnic communities? How did ethnic communities react to welfare capitalism, and how did it affect them? How was the Bohemian community affected by the “Eastland” disaster? What was the Bohemian community’s perception of Western Electric’s welfare capitalism after the “Eastland” disaster?

Leviathan’s Reach: The Influence of Government Policy on Society
Moderator: Dr. Kristin Geraty, Sociology Location: White Activities Center: Banquet Hall

‘Widerstand’ In the GDR: How Opposition Was Expressed Behind the Wall
Christina Bodigor ’13, Organizational Communication
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf, German

After the manifestation of the Berlin Wall, Germany was divided into East and West. During this time, the East was strictly forbidden to embrace anything Western. Certain music, art, literature, ideals, even blue jeans were considered degenerate and were subsequently not allowed in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Not all citizens agreed with the new laws imposed by the government and, despite the harsh penalties, resisted. Through the use of articles, testimonials and documentary films, the study examines how citizens in the GDR expressed opposition passively and aggressively toward a suppressive government and how it affected their daily lives. Through the use of the Church, music and direct defiance, East Germans were able to peacefully protest in order to promote a reunified Germany.

Government Officials, Closed Network, and Policy Formation in the Northwest Territories, 1780-1830
William Miller ’12, History, Political Science
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

The Northwest Territories were very impactful on the development of the United States from the 1780s to 1830s because the first great westward expansion of the United Sates took place within these territories. The federal government and many territorial governments created policies to help guide and control the growth of the United States. The research looks at government policies in the Northwest Territories and how they were formed. To create these policies government officials constructed a closed network that allowed different types of officials, such as military officers and territorial governors, to influence the policy decision-making process. This research also looks at local and national polices and determines which types of officials were more influential on each of them. The influence of frontier officials on policies is compared to the influence that federal officials had, which helped determine the overall influence of the core and periphery on policies.

Federalism and Social Justice in the WIC Program
Kendal Bilbro ’13, Anthropology, Political Science
Advisor: Dr. Stephen Maynard Caliendo, Political Science

The Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federally mandated, state-run program. WIC is an example of the United States’ state of dual federalism, since it is a program funded by the federal government but executed at the state level. This paper will apply John Rawls’ theory of social justice, specifically the ideas of distributive justice and the veil of ignorance, through the lens of federalism. Several forms of social welfare have been examined from this perspective, but specific attention to WIC is necessary due to the unique nature of the program, particularly in the current economic and political context. This paper concludes that WIC is theoretically and practically important due to its status as a successful federal program at a time of devolution, and because it is a safety net for those who maintain a disadvantaged place in society once the “veil of ignorance” is lifted.

The State of Undergraduate Education
Moderator: Dr. Kathleen King, Education Location: White Activities Center 10

Occupy English: The Benefit of an Undergraduate Degree in Challenging Economic Times
Jessica Tatar ’12, English: Literature, Spanish
Advisor: Dr. Jennifer Jackson, English

In today’s economic climate, it can be challenging to recognize all the benefits of an undergraduate degree, particularly one in English. This study examines a history of the English major in the context of the liberal arts to better understand its advantages, a critique of English departments to discover whether and how they provide the best experience for students, and a proposal detailing how English majors can use their skills to secure meaningful work in the real world. This analysis will map both traditional and alternative career paths for undergraduates studying English. Finally, it assesses less conventional and complementary paths to professional life for students whose interests, skills and passion led them to English.

A Study on Pedagogical Changes in Spanish Undergraduate Accounting Education
Megan King ’12, Accounting: Certified Public Accountant, Spanish
Advisor: Ms. Sarah Lureau, Accounting

In 2005, the European Union mandated that all publicly traded companies begin using the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) framework for accounting and reporting financial statements, which relies primarily on a principles-based accounting system. Accordingly, publicly traded companies in Spain must report under IFRS. The purpose of this research is to identify how the pedagogy of accounting courses in Spanish undergraduate universities has changed as a result of the implementation of IFRS. Through a qualitative case study approach of an undergraduate university by analyzing course catalog descriptions and syllabi for accounting courses, this study determines what changes the pedagogy of accounting courses within a Spanish undergraduate university underwent in order to switch to a principles-based accounting system. This study found that the pedagogy of accounting courses did not undergo many changes and further seeks to identify why such changes did not happen.

The Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Perspective: The Structure of the Experience
Jennifer Ciesiulka ’12, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Karl Kelley, Psychology

Previous researchers have examined the value of using undergraduate teaching assistants (UTA), but little is known about the experiences of the UTAs themselves. Understanding this role from the perspective of the UTA can help prepare them for the experience, provide faculty mentors with a richer understanding of their role, and can be used to develop more effective training programs. Using a critical incidents methodology, this study collected examples of issues faced by 17 UTAs who volunteered to participate in this research. More than 200 unique situations were gathered and categorized into an organizational structure. These patterns suggest that both UTAs and faculty mentors need more information and preparation about situations that might be encountered during the term. Preliminary validity analyses are presented to assist in training UTAs and faculty mentors. Next steps for this project include developing a situational judgment test to help train UTAs in understanding appropriate responses to unexpected situations.

Once Upon a Time: Evolving Conceptions of Romance, Gender and Sex
Moderator: Dr. Mara Berkland, Speech Communication Location: White Activities Center: Dining Room

And They All Live Happily Ever After: The Cult of True Womanhood, Fairy Tales and Working Girl Novels
Robin Swanson ’12, English: Literature
Advisor: Dr. Lisa Long, English

This research includes cultural and historical trends of 19th century America, like the American Dream of social mobility, to translate those trends to popular dime novels. Very little research has been done on dime novels because they are not considered quality literature. Research included the forgotten pieces of American fiction to better understand the culture and values of the time, which were embedded into best-selling books. The fairy tale motif found in most working-girl dime novels was related to the Cult of True Womanhood, an ideology from 19th century American culture on the role of women. Working girls of the 19th century were left out of social mobility and the Cult of True Womanhood by virtue of their gender and working status. By reading dime novels, working girls could vicariously both fulfill the requirements of the Cult of True Womanhood, to become “ladies” and thereby achieve social mobility.

The Pervasive Nature of Pornography and Its Influence on Sexual Consent
Margaret Drewno ’12, Biology
Mia Bryan ’12, Biology
Megan Potilechio ’12, Biology
Advisor: Dr. John Zenchak, Biology

This study examines the effects of pornography on men’s attitudes and behaviors toward women regarding their sexual enjoyment and the issue of consent. It hypothesized that women and men would have different views of what is sexually enjoyable for women. An online survey was distributed to heterosexual women and men, ages 18-22, to compare their ratings of various sexual acts for female sexual enjoyment. A total of 206 were completed and analyzed. Of the 14 sexual acts rated for female sexual enjoyment, 10 showed no significant difference between genders. Thus, men are aware of what is enjoyable and not enjoyable for women sexually, yet the majority (63 percent) of the pornography they consume contains the acts rated lowest for women’s enjoyment. In addition, some men perform those same acts on women without their permission, further revealing a relationship between acts viewed in pornography and those done to women without consent.

Dance Monsters Dance: The Empowerment Anthem of Lady Gaga as Feminist
David Depino ’13, History, Political Science
Advisor: Mr. John Stanley, Speech Communication

2011 was a great year for empowerment anthems. Popular artists told us to express ourselves, no matter the consequences. Why is this the case? Many pop stars, like “Pink, Kelly Clarkson, Katy Perry…[and] Beyoncé told listeners, ‘Like everyone, I’m flawed…I’m…worthy of respect.’” But among all these names, a clear political and social activist emerges; the one and only Lady Gaga. Lady Gaga produced two hit records over the last four years, while also carving a role as an activist. This research is a rhetorical analysis of the strategies she uses in these empowerment anthems on her new album. This research also includes a rhetorical criticism of “Born This Way” and identifies how she gives a voice to the marginalized LGBTQ community in society. Additionally, it identifies strategies Lady Gaga uses and offers original conclusions about how other marginalized groups can empower themselves through rhetoric.

Session 2: 11:45a.m. - 12:30p.m.

Gender and the Construction of the Feminine
Moderator: Dr. Sara Eaton, English Location: White Activities Center: Fireside Lounge

Dignified Working Girls: The Progression of Female Independence in Libbey and Dreiser
Shauntal Van Dreel ’12, English: Literature, Sociology
Advisor: Dr. Lisa Long, English

The working-girl genre originates in Laura Jean Libbey’s late 19th century novels and has subsequent thematic influence in later literary works. Both Libbey’s The Master Workman’s Oath and Dreiser’s Sister Carrie, present female heroines from working class backgrounds, however, Dreiser creates a proto-feminist in Carrie Meeber, prizing the independence of women and their accomplishments, whereas Libbey refrains. Libbey emphasizes Coralie’s dependence on male affirmation, while Dreiser’s Carrie rejects all suitors, and focuses on her working aspirations, pushing love and marriage to a secondary concern. Libbey and Dreiser cement the belief that obtaining genuine feminine characteristics recognized by society is only achievable by the upper classes, endorsing the already problematic chasm between women of the upper class and those beneath them.

Men Don’t Clean Toilets: An Examination of Gender Performance in Everyday Life
Emily Schmidt, ’12, English: Writing, Theatre: Performance
Advisor: Dr. Sara Eaton, English

In 1990, Judith Butler revolutionized gender studies by publishing her book “Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity” that analyzed “how gendered identity is socially produced through repetitions of ordinary daily activities” (Leitch 2485). Though Butler’s concept has thrived in terms of critical exploration over the last two decades, society still does not seem to pay heed to the restricting gender standards that remain the driving force in cultural acceptance and personal success. This study hypothesizes that even the minutest daily actions oftentimes fall under the restrictive constructs of gender roles, and it will demonstrate this by connecting personal experience with the gender theories and revealing how they can profoundly affect an individual. The implications of these gender roles have clearly altered my life, and this creative nonfiction work will reveal the harsh the nature of these cultural restraints by coupling gender theory with scientific study and personal accounts.

Contradicting Opinions: The Woman Suffrage Movement in America
Kristin Tworek, ’12, History, Spanish
Advisor: Dr. Ann Keating, History

The Woman Suffrage Movement is traditionally told from the suffragist perspective the victor who wrote history. However, this way of “doing” history fails to show comprehensive American history by leaving out the anti-suffragists. Neither the suffragists nor anti-suffragists left a clear-cut understanding, since there were factions within each side. This movement tells the story of the obvious political and gender issues, but there is also a focus on class, race, and who should have the authority over making the decision on who could and could not vote. In this research I argue that it is imperative to understand how class, race, and authority issues influenced each point of view of both the suffragists and anti-suffragists during the late 19th century and early 20th century in the United States.

Exploring the Meaning and Message of Children’s Literature
Moderator: Dr. Jennifer Jackson, English Location: White Activities Center: Banquet Hall

Cultural Messages in Children’s Literature in Thailand
Emma Rothenfluh ’12, English: Writing, Theatre
Advisor: Dr. Mara Berkland, Speech Communication

This two-step cultural analysis sought to discover which cultural messages were most widely and most often spread to the youth in Thailand through children’s literature. Based on interviews with Thai publishers, literacy directors and teachers, four of the most popular texts were chosen and analyzed to see whether children are being encouraged to read narratives that reinforce traditional Thai values or, instead, are being exposed to contradictory values. Because of the globalization of the book industry, many of the books popular among Thai youth are teaching them Western worldviews and values. These four books in particular are shaping existing Thai values through a negotiation of values that reflect status and equality and group identity and independence. Ultimately, characters and plots try to reconcile the tension between these opposing tensions.

Reimagining the Journey of Self-Discovery and Transformation: Harry Potter and the Shifting Role of the Authority Figure in the “Bildungsroman”
Mary Kizior ’12, English: Writing, French
Advisor: Dr. Jennifer Jackson, English

This paper examines the Harry Potter series as contemporary children’s literature, which challenges the ideas of formation and the necessity of a moral guide from Victorian “Bildungsroman” and reimagines those ideas to suit the needs of the contemporary child. The paper contrasts the Harry Potter series with George MacDonald’s “The Princess and the Goblin” (1872) and Roald Dahl’s “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” (1964) to trace the evolution of the authority figure from one who uses question and answer dialogues in order to encourage the protagonist to reach moral and physical maturation to one who relies on experience to enrich the life of the protagonist with little or no influence from the authority figure. The Harry Potter series frames the journey of discovering the self as one fraught with fear, uncertainty, lack of wonder and a loss of moral certainty.

Breadcrumbs Productions: Following the Brothers Grimm Through History
Emily Rademaker ’12, Classical Civilization, German
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf, German

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm created one of the first uniquely German cultural products with “Die Kinder-und Hausmärchen,” which they molded to be accessible to their modern culture. In order to contextualize the development of their ideas and to more accurately portray the legacy of the Brothers, research included travel to parts of Germany and France in summer 2011 to construct a documentary film of the Brothers Grimm. (This research extended a previous ethnography conducted in 2010.) Filming was conducted in Paris, Kassel, Göttingen and Berlin; all significant cities of the authors’ lives. Through film, images, narration and web design, this project includes a multi-media presentation of the difficulties of memory versus reality, elucidating the truth within the Grimms’ lives; they are truly realized by the scholars who are familiar with their context and by the public who witness the Brothers’ continually changing perception.

A Scientific Approach to Art and Music
Moderator: Dr. Hale Ekinci, Art Location: White Activities Center 10

Art and Intimacy: The Dichotomy of Public and Private Museums
Jessica L. Berger ’12, Art
Advisor: Dr. Wendy Koenig, Art

This project compares the art arrangement, mission statements and personal experiences between selected private and public museums in the United States, drawing upon the extensive literature available in the field of museum studies and the emerging field of study of Affect Theory. A comparison is made of the layout and assemblage characteristics between public and private institutions and investigates why these are significant to the museum visiting experience. During this study, timed observations of patrons were performed at three public and three private museums to determine if smaller institutions in private environments with controlled access and unconventional art arrangements allow and possibly encourage the museum patron to have a more intimate experience with the art and is contrasted to large, public museums with unlimited access and conventional exhibit arrangements. Results for two of the private museums showed patrons spending significantly more time observing each work of art studied.

The 64 Button Grid: Expressive Strategies for Gestural Control in Real-time Electronic Music
Brian Riordan ’12, Music
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Kirk, Music

This paper will describe a process of building virtual musical instruments to create successful and expressive human-to-computer interaction (HCI) within a digital audio programming environment (Max/MSP). The HCI format used in this research project is a digital interface used for gestural control to trigger a musical event. The paper defines two categories of gestural control: direct and indirect. An example of a direct control is using a button to trigger an event, an indirect control uses an expressive and unpredictable gesture with the hand to create an event. The Max/MSP programming environment offers the composer a visual space to create and modify data control and to generate sound. The result of this project will be to create an efficient, creative and personalized HCI experience.

‘Earthly Tones:’ Sacred Music From a Rough-Hewn Bench
Kathryn Brouch ’12, History, Music
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Kirk, Music

A musical tradition of singular performance practice, theoretical foundation and history, 19th century shape-note singing involved systematic training, community gatherings and the creation of “The Sacred Harp,” which contains the rudiments of shape-note notation and a comprehensive collection of shape-note tunes. Through comparison of 19th century documents, including convention records and tune books, this paper found the southern shape-note singing practices of “The Sacred Harp” both compared and contrasted with standard northeastern Christian hymnody. Research suggests the contrasting social and cultural aspects of the New England and the rural South in the mid 19th century and the ideologies of the Second Great Awakening led to a distinctive regional, musical identity in southern, rural areas. Through personally conducted field research involving aural examination of modern day singings in the Chicagoland area, original musicological observations that have illuminated the continuing developments of shape-note performance practice are documented.

The Study of Risky Behavior
Moderator: Dr. Heather Coon, Psychology Location: White Activities Center: Dining Room

A New Heuristic for Mountain Climbing: The Role of Affect in Perceived Risk
Whitney English ’13, History
Advisor: Dr. Matthias Regan, English

Climbers pursue the challenges of summiting dangerous mountains such as Everest despite the risks presented along the way, including severe frostbite or even death. In order to explain why climbers risk life and limb, researchers in psychology have proposed that mountain climbing is best perceived as a defense mechanism against anxiety, a compulsive repetition that masks the climbers’ relationship with others. By applying a new “affect heuristic” (which assumes that people use emotions as mental cues for making rational judgments) to mountain climbing, this paper offers a view of these dangerous adventures in terms of the lack of familiarity and control, and the perception of risk and opportunity. Based on the testimonies of Jim Wickwire, Beck Weathers and John Gill, this research uncovers how the emotions experienced by these famous climbers not only guide their actions up a mountain, but also induce an addiction to risk itself.

The Effect of Hypocrisy on Intentions to Advocate Against Texting While Driving
Randi Purcell ’12, Psychology
Nicholas Petkunas ’12, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Heather Coon, Psychology

This study used recent work on induced hypocrisy to decrease intentions to text while driving (TWD). Salience and public commitment were used to induce hypocrisy. Undergraduates completed a questionnaire and made a pledge or critiqued a flyer. The amount of flyers the participants were willing to post, the amount of time posting flyers, and the perceived danger of TWD were measured. It was hypothesized that those who experienced the induced hypocritical effect would try to reduce dissonance by spending more time posting flyers, intend to TWD less frequently, and view TWD as more dangerous. Participants whose past TWD behaviors were made salient volunteered more time and participants in the control condition (no salience or commitment) felt TWD was less dangerous than those in the other conditions. Induced hypocrisy did not result in the expected outcomes; however, making people aware of their past TWD behavior may be effective in reducing TWD behaviors.

Econometric Analysis of March Madness
Michael Matuszak ’12, Accounting, Economics, Finance
Advisor: Dr. Diane Anstine, Economics

The unpredictable nature of an athletic contest can make it seem impossible to accurately pick a winner. In the annual NCAA March Madness Tournament, this trend is very obvious with the number of upsets that throw off most fans’ brackets. Previous work in sports economics has predicted the number of wins per season, but none have extended this to the NCAA tournament in particular. Using panel data over the last 10 years, a model predicts the number of wins in the tournament for each team using such factors as previous winning percentage, poll rank and rebounds per game. Comparing the model’s predictions to the actual outcome of this year’s tournament will give a measure of the accuracy of the model.

The American Political System Under the Microscope
Moderator: Dr. Suzanne Chod, Political Science Location: Goldspohn 37

American Values and Congressional Rhetoric
Brianna Howell ’12, Global Studies, International Relations, Political Science
Kathleen Tite ’12, Political Science
Meghan Steinbeiss ’13, Political Science
Advisor: Dr. Suzanne Chod, Political Science

Studies on American values have revealed a consistency in the importance of particular values across demographics and over time within the nation. After defining and compartmentalizing these American values, this study examines how they are used as a rhetorical tool by congressional lawmakers. To determine the frequency and type of rhetoric used by Congress, research included a content analysis of House members’ floor speeches in search of key rhetorical terms as defined within the existing literature. The data across party lines was compared to determine how parties vary in their use of value rhetoric over time and if a partisan rhetorical agenda exists. This study will consider House of Representatives floor speeches from 1990 to 2000; this allows examination of rhetoric use before and after the revolutionary Speakership of Newt Gingrich. We expect to find growth and consequential reformation of rhetoric use after 1994 with partisan consistency over time.

Homestyle of the President
Emily Schaub ’12, Political Science
Advisor: Dr. Suzanne Chod, Political Science

Fenno (1977) studied the homestyle of members of the House of Representatives. Specifically, he outlines the importance of trust in the form of qualification, identification and empathy. Ragsdale (1991) argues that voters judge trustworthiness of presidents. Based on this, how do presidents cultivate these forms of trust when running for election? In order to examine this, it is necessary to study a president who ran more than once and against very different challengers in order to see if there is variation in his homestyle. Therefore, study included George H.W. Bush’s 1988 and 1992 campaigns. Expectations were to find that in an election with an unlikeable challenger, the qualifications aspect of homestyle was more important than the identification aspect. With a likeable challenger, expectations were the opposite. To determine which aspects of homestyle are most important, this study will include a content analysis of Bush’s general election campaign speeches in 1988 and 1992.

Immigration Mediation: An Alternative to Ineffective Political Debate
Jenna Slack ’12, Spanish, Leadership, Ethics & Values
Advisor: Mr. Thomas Cavenagh,

Mediation is an alternative dispute resolution process that encourages understanding and communication amongst conflicted parties while guiding them toward a mutually agreeable resolution. Although mediation is typically used in civil disputes as a precursor to or replacement for litigation, this project explores the extent to which mediation could illuminate new understandings about larger political disputes as a replacement for political debate. Focusing on the illegal migration conflict between Mexico and the United States, the project outlines a hypothetical mediation process between undocumented Mexican immigrants on one side of the table and American citizens on the other. The consummate resolution of this process is then compared with the actual policy outcomes of recent political debates on the immigration issue. In conclusion, the paper highlights and elaborates on the potential benefits of guiding American political discourse with more mediation technique and less debate strategy.

Understanding How We Understand Each Other
Moderator: Dr. Patricia Schacht, Psychology Location: Goldspohn 31

The Influence Of Perceived Action and Ethnic Background on Weight Bias Among Undergraduate Students
Angela Frelander ’12, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Leila Azarbad, Psychology

The obesity epidemic has led to discrimination, which has been found to result in serious social consequences (Puhl & Brownell 2006). Weight bias and stigma have been found to be a function of perceptions of peoples’ stereotypical or stigmatizing beliefs (Puhl, Schwartz, & Brownell 2005). No studies have examined how an obese individual’s decision to take action toward weight loss affects perceptions of others, as well as by an observer’s own level of depressive symptoms. This study aimed to (a) examine whether weight bias varied as a function of an obese individual’s action toward weight loss and ethnic background, and (b) explore the relationship between weight stigma and depressive symptoms in college students. Eighty undergraduates read one of four vignettes that described an obese Caucasian/African-American female engaging in action/no action toward weight loss. Participants’ weight bias, depressive symptoms and other variables were objectively assessed. Results and implications will be discussed.

Mental Health Literacy: A Generational Gap in the Public’s Knowledge and Perceptions of Mental Illness
Kristin Kiper ’11, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Leila Azarbad, Psychology

Mental health literacy refers to an individual’s knowledge and beliefs about mental illness. The purpose of this study was to compare the mental health literacy of two generations: young adults (ages 18-24, n= 36) and older adults (ages 65+, n= 26). Participants were administered three vignettes of an individual with three different DSM-IV disorders: major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and paranoid schizophrenia. Results indicated that young adults demonstrated higher levels of mental health literacy than older adults. Specifically, young adults evidenced less stigma and desired less social distance from an individual with mental illness compared to older adults. Significant differences emerged in knowledge and treatment preferences in the OCD vignette only. These findings suggest that older adults may benefit from increased efforts aimed at enhancing knowledge and decreasing stigma toward individuals with mental illness.

The Effects of Parenting on Late Adolescent Aggression, Bullying Behaviors and Peer Victimization
Rachel Garthe ’11, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Patricia Schacht, Psychology

Stories of aggression and peer victimization have flooded the news, media and schools in recent years. This increase in attention has led researchers to ask more questions about how children and adolescents become involved in aggressive behaviors and how certain factors can influence these behaviors. Research has found that negative parenting styles are linked to aggression and bullying behaviors, as well as internalizing behaviors of victimization (Arim, Dahinten, Marshal, & Shapka, 2011; Smith & Myron-Wilson, 1998). The present study examines how adolescents’ perceptions of parenting styles are correlated with aggression, roles in bullying and outcomes of bullying. It is hypothesized that individuals in late adolescence who perceive their parents to have negative parenting styles will be correlated with higher rates of aggression and more internalizing behaviors of victimization. Results found that negative parenting styles were significantly correlated with verbal and hostile aggressive behaviors, as well as internalizing behaviors of victimization.

Untangling Mathematical Mysteries
Moderator: Dr. Matthew Pons, Mathematics Location: Goldspohn 33

The Average Bridge Number of Universe Resolutions
Tyler Schroeder ’13, Mathematics
Donglun Liu ’13, Accounting, Economics, Mathematics
Thomas Kyle ’14, Accounting, Computer Science
Steven Mackey ’13, Political Science
Advisor: Dr. Neil Nicholson, Mathematics

Intuitively, a knot is thought of as a highly deformable rubber string in three dimensions where the endpoints are sealed together, and the string does not intersect itself at any point. Mathematically, a knot is defined as a closed, non-self-intersecting, one-dimensional curve embedded in three dimensions. A knot invariant is a function f: K g f (k) such that knots of the same type (e.g., deformations of the rubber string) have the same function value [5]. This project researched the invariant known as bridge index and proved that the average bridge number (ABN) over all resolutions of an n-crossing knot universe is . Starting with a base case of n = 2 , this is proven via induction through combinatorial methods by examining how (n + 1)-crossing universes are gotten from n-crossing universes. The presentation will explain this proof.

Representing Negative Numbers in a Ternary Computer
Kaleb Roggenkamp ’12, Computer Science, Mathematics
Advisor: Dr. Matthew Pons, Mathematics

Within the computer science world, there are four main binary (base 2) systems used to represent negative numbers: Signed Bit, One’s Complement, Two’s Complement and Excess. These systems have been around for well over half a century and, as a result, have been thoroughly researched from a computer science perspective. This paper seeks to discover which system would scale into a ternary (base 3) world the most efficiently and analyzes the systems from a mathematical perspective. The analysis produced several interesting results, some of which help to clarify the above question, and others which are fascinating in their own right. This report will concentrate on presenting the systems themselves, explaining the discoveries and determining whether there is a clear system that scales to ternary the simplest.

Inverse Preserving Functions in the p-adic Fields
Jonathan Rascher ’12, Computer Science, Mathematics
Kelvin Guilbault ’12, Computer Science, Mathematics
Advisor: Dr. David Schmitz, Mathematics

Notational ambiguity often puzzles math students; particularly, x^(-1) might denote either the functional inverse or the reciprocal of x, depending on context. The project considers continuous functions for which f^(-1)(x) = (f(x))^(-1), where the left-hand side denotes the functional inverse and the right-hand side denotes a group inverse. Previous research examined such functions in the reals, the complex numbers, and the finite fields, leading to a curious pattern and an as yet unproven conjecture–in all but one trivial instance, a field has inverse preserving functions in either the additive group or the multiplicative group, but not both. The paper investigates whether this pattern holds in the p-adic number systems–a collection of fields that offer a completion of the rational numbers with unique topology.

Virus Transmission and Cellular Responses
Moderator: Dr. Gregory Ruthig, Biology Location: Goldspohn 35

Mathematical Modeling of the Transmission of the Varicella-Zoster Virus
Maria Gommel ’13, Accounting, Mathematics
Donglun Liu ’13, Accounting, Economics, Mathematics
Samuel Jaros ’13 Accounting, Economics, Finance, Mathematics
Advisor: Dr. Linda Gao, Mathematics

The Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles. A one-dose vaccination program was adopted by the United States in 1995 followed by a two-dose program in 2006. This project used mathematical modeling to investigate VZV transmission, as well as the effectiveness of control measures. It investigated their effectiveness in preventing outbreaks and developed four streamlined models to describe the spread of chickenpox and shingles. It analyzed the models’ basic epidemic characteristics, including equilibrium solutions and their stability, and the Vaccination Reproduction (Rv) Number (calculated using the Next Generation Operator Method). Numerical solutions for various parameter conditions are investigated in an attempt to predict the efficacy of various vaccination strategies, as well as view the long-term behavior of shingles incidence in conjunction with these strategies. The results from numerical analysis shows that with the two-dose program and 90 percent coverage, zoster incidence will increase significantly for about 27 years and then decrease afterwards.

Serotonin Receptor 5-HTR1B and Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes During Inflammation
Rebecca K. Tran ’12, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Visick, Biology

Asthmatic and allergy-related inflammation of the airways in the lungs is caused by transendothelial migration (TEM) of leukocytes from the capillaries into the lung tissue. Data shows that (1) pretreatment of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor to serotonin, reduces the migration of leukocytes at dosages of 60, 75 and 125 µM in mHEVa cells and (2) serotonin receptor 5-HTR1B mediates TEM of leukocytes. The relationship between inflammation and serotonin supports a possible physiological link between mood and asthma/allergies. In addition, this research developed a model that reduced the cost and time in running parallel flow assays that mimic TEM.

Role of Viral Gene BHRF1 in Epstein-Barr Virus Dependent Lymphoma Cells
Grace N. Muganda ’12, Biochemistry, Computer Science
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Visick, Biology

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common human herpesvirus. EBV is associated with malignancies, including Burkitt’s and Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The EBV viral genes play a role in sustaining the proliferation of these lymphomas through various mechanisms including blocking apoptosis. EBV encodes BALF1 and BHRF1, two homologs of the cellular anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL. It has been shown that the constitutive expression of Bcl-xL can block apoptosis in some EBV positive lymphoma cells such that the cells can survive the loss of the EBV genome. We tested whether BHRF1 is sufficient to block apoptosis in cells losing the EBV genome. BHRF1 was expressed in two Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines that are dependent on EBV (EBV+). Cells that were able to survive without EBV were counted via Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). This improved EBV- model expressing BHRF1 instead of Bcl-xL will illuminate functions that the EBV genome is providing to the lymphoma cells.