North Central College - Naperville, IL

Poster Presentations

Wentz Concert Hall, Fine Arts Center and Madden Theatre Lobbies
9:30 - 10:30 a.m.

Protecting the Artist’s Touch for the Sake of the Classroom
Alyssa Mahoney ’13, Education: Elementary
Advisor: Dr. Nancy Keiser, Education

This project focuses on the effect of fine arts in education. My study was designed to explore the question, “Does participation in extra-curricular fine arts activities impact the academic performance of fourth and fifth grade students?” The results suggest that instruction/performance in fine arts was correlated to improved academic performance of the 23 fourth and fifth grade subjects. The subjects took two standardized tests—one before and one after participation in a drama club in the 2012-2013 school year. I compared the pre- and post-test results, and the findings indicate an increased rate of academic progress after participating in a fine arts activity. Although funds for fine arts activities in schools are quickly dwindling, I conclude that they should be maintained and supported as participation in fine arts activities enhances the students’ academic performance.

Designing Species-Specific Fast Quantitative PCR Locked Nucleic Acid Probes and Zoospore Standards for Use in Detection of Pathogenic Water Molds
Andrew Dubois ’13, Biology
Joel Di Bernardo ’14, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Ruthig, Biology

Water molds may exist as multihost pathogens as well as saprobes that infect invertebrates, fish, reptiles and amphibians. Traditional methods of identification for water mold species have relied on morphological observations and the production of sexual structures, which have been suggested to be unreliable by molecular comparison between water mold inter transcribed spacer regions. We collected and extracted DNA from water molds found in DuPage County water bodies. We selected one species that matched a known bullfrog pathogen and designed a locked nucleic acid DNA probe with the goal of species specificity. We also induced water mold strains to produce zoospores and used them to create a standard curve for use in fast quantitative polymerase chain reaction. If successful, the fast qPCR technique we develop will have great utility in studies of water mold community ecology and host pathogen-interactions.

The Inhibition of Water Mold Growth by Bacteria
Brandon Wood ’13, Biochemistry
Megan Malone ’13, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Nancy Peterson, Chemistry

The water mold Saprolegnia has pathogenic effects on the development of American Bull Frog egg masses. In-vivo observations show that bacteria slow water mold growth, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens inhibiting Saprolegnia on catfish egg masses. Our objective is to observe the effect of various bacteria on a water mold to determine a mechanism for inhibition. Our assay measures the in-vitro ability of water mold to grow toward the bacteria. We found that the presence of bacteria resulted in the inhibition of growth, with an area of basic pH separating the two organisms, indicating that secretions might be the cause. We showed Aeromonas jandaei, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis all inhibited water mold. A. jandaei has previously been discovered on egg masses while E. coli and B. subtilis have not. From this, we propose a potential symbiotic relationship between egg masses and bacteria and hypothesize that basic metabolic products cause inhibition.

Reconnecting With History Through Historic Environment Education
Brian Failing ’14, History
Advisor: Dr. Stephen Macek, Speech Communication

In, “Last Child in the Woods,” Richard Louv calls attention to nature deficit disorder, a disconnect from the natural world. I argue that Historic Environment Education (HEE) could be used to solve the problem. HEE is an educational method that combines living histories, oral histories, and historic preservation to turn history into something you experience, rather than something you are subjected to. Originating at the Kalmar Läns Museum in Sweden, HEE has not been highly used in the United States. Using the three principals of HEE, I have examined museums throughout the local community—Museums at Lisle Station Park, Sheldon Peck Homestead and the Victorian Cottage—to assess the extent to which this method is being implemented on a daily basis. This examination has shown that HEE can be implemented into current museum interpretation through hands-on activities and demonstrators to ease the effects of nature deficit disorder.

Digital Manipulation of Advertisements Affect on Self-Esteem
Candice Caldwell ’13, Interactive Media Studies: Graphic Arts
Advisor: Dr. Mara Berkland, Speech Communication

This project examines whether digitally manipulated advertisements affect an individual’s body image.  An image of one male and one female athlete at North Central College were used to create separate advertisements for North Central College’s fitness center and then were digitally altered, creating three conditions (unaltered, digitally altered, and digitally altered with a warning label). 150 students responded to a survey that consisted of questions from self-esteem and body image scales, as well as general questions about the advertisements. Their responses showed that when viewing the digitally manipulated advertisements with the warning label had the most positive effect on their self-esteem and body image. It was no surprise that the digital manipulated advertisement showed the most negative impact on self-esteem. Surprisingly the original advertisement showed the most negative impact on body image, possibly because, as the literature suggests, the two athletes in these advertisements were chosen because they were already highly fit and attractive.

Exploring the Role of Color in the Memory System of Grapheme-Color Synesthetes
Carissa Rosine ’13, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Daniel VanHorn, Psychology

This study investigates the role of color in the memory advantage often seen in those with grapheme-color synesthesia. Synesthesia is the involuntary experience of feeling one sensation in response to a different sensory stimulus (Pearce, 2007). Those with grapheme-color synesthesia experience an involuntary, automatic sense of color in response to a particular letter or number. Synesthetes and non-synesthetes study digits, shapes, sentences and photographs and then recall the studied material. We manipulate the color information available at study. We are interested in memory differences between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. We hypothesize that synesthetes will demonstrate superior memory compared to non-synesthetes for all types of studied material. Furthermore, we expect the synesthete memory advantage to be greater for the study materials that are presented with color information than for the study materials that are presented without color information.

Identity Management in the Hashemite Kingdom: An Analysis of American Expatriate Communication Strategies in Jordan
Carly Johnston ’13, Anthropology
Advisor: Dr. Mara Berkland, Speech Communication

This project examines identity management and communication strategies used by American expatriates living in Jordan. Drawing on the current scholarship pertaining to cultural immersion and social identity, this study asks, specifically, how expatriates manage expectations of them as outsiders when living in a different culture. Because it is often evident when minorities do not “fit in” with the dominant culture, expatriates encounter problems. Such issues range from being ostracized to violence but, ultimately, they stem from a negative social identity. Through interview-based research, this study attempts to make sense of the tactics that Americans use to assimilate or blend into the dominant Arab culture of Jordan. The emerging themes indicate assimilation in the form of appearance, non-verbal communication, language, and disclosures. Deeper understandings of these methods of assimilation have the potential to reveal the impact of cultural values and how minorities living in a dominant culture navigate them.

Toward a Mathematics Model for Building an NBA Champion: Predictors of Success in the NBA
Christopher Halverson ’13, Mathematics
Advisor: Dr. Richard Wilders, Mathematics

The first objective was to determine what statistics/metrics from the regular season could best be used to predict play-off and ultimately Championship success. The three best predictors of Championship and play-off success are an all-NBA first team player on the roster, (Top 5) defensive efficiency, and breaking 57 wins (or roughly 70%) for the season. The second goal was to look into how this metrics should be used in light of roster construction in the NBA. A brief look at both successful and unsuccessful teams illustrates how one could successfully implement the aforementioned strategies.

“There’s Not to Reason Why”: Understanding the Motivations of Marine Corps Officer Candidates in Chicago, Illinois
Frank A. Wleklinski Jr. ’13, Sociology
Advisor: Dr. Kristin Geraty, Sociology

This study looks at motivations of Marine Corps officer candidates in the Chicagoland area. It asks what their motives are, what these motives mean to them, and it asks what this tells about our militaries and human nature in general. Understanding these motivations allows us to better understand the ethos of our military.  Past research has centered on Army enlisted personnel. This study uses qualitative survey data as well as participant observation in order to target the current gap in knowledge surrounding military service motivations. The overarching question: What types of motivations make current candidates want to become Marine Corps officers? This study hinges on and refutes the observations of Charles C. Moskos Jr. in 1977 that the motivations of military members are beginning to erode, and its findings sheds light on what this tells us about human motivations in general, using interdisciplinary methods.

Marketing Through Stories
Gail Oesterle ’14, International Business
Advisor: Dr. Gerald Thalmann, Accounting

Pan narrans, or the storytelling ape, has been suggested as an alternative name for our species because the idea that stories are what bind us together and allow us to connect with others. Furthermore, stories help humans connect to others. Obviously, this can be implemented as a powerful marketing tool, especially for fair-trade and direct-trade businesses, where there is a perceived relationship between the producers and buyers. We propose to present how consumers connect to the products through stories associated with the products. Moving beyond that, we want to learn how consumers react to authenticity within their buying practices as shown through stories. Our project will follow current theories in the art of storytelling and marketing, as well as ways to optimize this process by encouraging consumer empathy.

NMR and Statistical Analysis of Maillard Reaction Products of Varying Sugars
Gianna Medina ’14, Biochemistry
Aaron Langer ’14, Chemistry
Advisor: Dr. Jeffrey Bjorklund, Chemistry

The Maillard reaction is a chemical process that occurs during cooking. The reaction takes place between carbohydrates and proteins. Food chemists are uncertain of the similarities of Maillard reaction end products for varying sugars. By using a simplified model of the Maillard reaction which reacts mono and disaccharides with an amino acid we can determine the similarities. Past researchers suggested a limited percent yield of end products. Our goal was to increase the cooking time to yield a higher percent yield of products. This allows us to compare the similarities and differences between starting and end products of varying sugars. The sugars used were maltose, fructose, sucrose and glucose while the amino acid used was glycine. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) we analyzed the similarities of the products. Our data suggests that we increased the percent yield of products and showed similarities between monosaccharide sugars.

The Christmas Markets in Germany: The German View Today
Hannah Kramer ’15, German
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf, German

The Christmas markets in Germany are known for their handmade wooden figurines, handblown glass and unique craftsmanship. Through viewing the Christmas markets in Germany, one can see German’s history, pastimes and love for Christmas time (Perry 258, Andrews 7). The tradition of the German Christmas markets, which have been a part of the German culture since the 15th century, have changed over time. When the Christmas markets first began, they were for purchasing gifts and holiday decorations; today they have a different purpose. Through interviews conducted with Germans in Berlin and Erfurt, I was able to grasp a better understanding of how the Germans view the Christmas markets. In addition to the interviews, I was able to understand the markets more through observation, photography and additional research. I have found that the Germans view the Christmas markets as a place to congregate, enjoy the outdoors, drink and spend time with friends.

The Nature and Prevalence of Binge Eating Among Undergraduate Athletes
Jacey Keeney ’13, Mathematics, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Leila Azarbad, Psychology

Eating disorders have been found to affect college students, and particularly college athletes, with greater frequency than the general population (Depalma et al., 1993; Petrie, 1993; Nicoli & Liberatore, 1999). Though research indicates that binge eating among college athletes ranges from 10%-13% (Johnson et al., 1999), much of our knowledge of binge eating has been explored in the context of Bulimia Nervosa (binge eating followed by a compensatory behavior) as opposed to strict binge eating. The purpose of this study was to (a) compare the occurrence of binge eating in undergraduate athletes and undergraduate nonathletes, (b) examine gender differences in the rate of binge eating among undergraduate athletes and nonathletes, and (c) explore the relationship between binge eating and depressive symptoms in undergraduate athletes. Participants consisted of 143 undergraduates (50 athletes, 93 nonathletes) who completed objective measures of binge eating and depression. Results and implications will be discussed.

Formal Wood Sculpture: An Uncommon Method
Jeremy Thurlby ’13, Art: Studio
Advisor: Ms. Christine Rabenold

As art movements progress, the art world has moved past the traditional skilled artist or craftsperson. Our society as a whole also shifted from an industrial economy based on skilled people to a society that relies on mass produced foreign imports. Are handmade objects or sculpture still relevant or valued in today’s culture?  Does it make a difference that something was made sans power tools or is it merely based upon the final result? The project/research was conducted using all traditional hand-operated equipment breaking free of the reliance on powered woodworking equipment. The technique or process required to conduct this research became a performative element that is ultimately lost in the final product. The results are based upon the context, those who witnessed the production versus those who see the finished sculpture hanging in the gallery.

College Students’ Views of Teen Pregnancy in Relation to Their Religious Devotion
Jessica Anne Lang-Millard ’13, Mathematics, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Patricia Schacht, Psychology

Teen pregnancy in America is the highest among all developed nations. Even though there has been a consistent decline since 1995, this nation still has a great concern for young single mothers (McKay 2010). However, there have been very few studies that have examined perceptions of teen pregnancy and even fewer that relate religious beliefs to this topic. Since there are studies that examine changes in sexual behavior based on Christian beliefs, it may be the case that religious beliefs impact perspectives of teen pregnancy (Meier 2003). Christianity has become more individualized during the past 40 years; therefore, Christians are motivated to base their belief system on secular perspectives (Peterson 1997). This study will consider how college students’ views on teen pregnancy are impacted by their religious devotion. This research can give insight into potential biases about pregnant teenagers and also examine current views of teen mothers through the eyes of a much more secular Christian population (Eshbaugh 2011).

The Effect of Introversion/Extroversion, Anxiety, and Caffeine Upon Ratings of Threat
Jillian Brunner ’13, Psychology
Michelle DePasquale ’14, Psychology
Rebecca Kirk ’13, Biochemistry
Anitta Milloro ’13, Psychology
Storm Styles ’13, Psychology
Jen Rallford ’12, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Mary Jean Lynch, Psychology

Previous research has found that introverts develop fear conditioning more quickly than extraverts, and this finding has been attributed to differential sensitivity to reward, nonreward and punishment. We examined how the combination of an external arouser (caffeine) and internal arousal (introversion/extraversion) affect sensitivity to and recall of threatening and nonthreatening words. Participants were assigned to the caffeine or decaf condition in a double-blind, block randomization procedure. Participants in the caffeine condition received 4 mg caffeine/kg of body weight (roughly the amount of caffeine in two cups of regularly brewed coffee). Participants were asked to rate how personally threatening two series of words are, and then asked to recall the words (unexpected recall first, intentional recall second). Preliminary results about introversion/extroversion are inconclusive, but caffeine appears to interact with anxiety to affect recall of nonthreatening words.

Isoaspartyl Protein Damage Affects Disposal of Aggregates and Cell Filamentation in E. coli Under Low-Salt Conditions
Katelyn DeRosa ’13, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Visick, Biology

L-isoaspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PCM) is a protein-repair enzyme in bacteria and humans. Because PCM is required for long-term survival of Escherichia coli when exposed to high-salt stress that denatures proteins, our laboratory is testing the hypothesis that repair of isoaspartyl damage by PCM is important in maintaining proteins’ folded, functional state. We used a fluorescent reporter to investigate the effect of osmotic changes on protein aggregation: the chaperone protein IbpA binds aggregated proteins, which can be visualized in an E. coli strain where endogenous IbpA is replaced by a fusion to YFP. We found no difference between wild-type and PCM mutants under high-salt conditions; however, under low-salt conditions the cells of the mutant strain became more filamentous with aggregates distributed throughout the cell rather than localized at the poles of cells. This suggests that the inability to repair isoaspartyl damage under low-salt stress may affect unfolded protein disposal machinery.

Act Local, Think Global
Katherine Hoekstra ’13, Entrepreneurship, Management
Advisor: Dr. Robert Moussetis, International Business

Considering the range-depth of global markets, opportunities are in abundance for small companies to explore business opportunities globally. What shapes the global consumer though requires original market research. Moreover, choosing the right market and method to enter this market is a decision of critical importance to a firm. The original contribution of this project researched and developed an instrument to explore the market feasibility for luxury baby products in China. There is no prior research to provide insights on such products. The firsthand statistical analysis demonstrated that (1) the Chinese consumer is very concerned with the safety of a baby product; (2) they value when purchasing something  high in quality; (3) there is a market for luxury products; and (4) malls may not be the best place to sell such products. The utility of the findings are for small companies interested in exploring the baby product market in China.

Persisters and the Isoaspartyl Protein Repair Enzyme PCM Increase Long-Term Stationary Phase Fitness in Escherichia coli
Kelsey VandenBerg ’14, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Visick, Biology

One cause of aging in organisms is molecular damage to proteins. One form, isoaspartyl damage, is repaired by the nearly ubiquitous enzyme L-isoaspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PCM). PCM mutations were previously shown to affect levels of persisters: a metabolically inactive and antibiotic-tolerant sub-population of cells. Persistence may be a survival response of cells with low fitness; therefore, we examined the effect of PCM and persister mutations on competitive fitness. Wild type E. coli, pcm mutants, glpD mutants, and glpD pcm double mutants were competed against each other for 10 days in long-term stationary phase in pairs at varying starting ratios. Our results indicate that possession of PCM lends a competitive advantage, the first clear demonstration of a negative phenotype for pcm mutants in the absence of stress. These results also suggest that the ability to produce persisters may increase competitive fitness in stationary phase, perhaps due to lowered metabolic rates of persister cells.

North Central College: Woe Week and Green Week Hazing from 1946-1969
Lauren Frieders ’15, History, Marketing
Advisor: Dr. Ann Durkin Keating, History

While often seen as problematic, North Central College has at points in its history participated in the hazing of new freshmen. The practice of hazing at North Central was most common during Woe Week from 1946 until 1962 and Green Week from 1962 until 1969. By researching articles in North Central College’s The College Chronicles, I have traced the evolution of hazing practices in these two time periods. My research also shows that the college’s students, the Student Council and the faculty were divided on the issue of hazing and more generally on freshman orientation. With the termination of both Woe Week in 1962 and Green Week in 1969, orientation for freshmen was not given a name until the 2000s with the introduction of Welcome Week.

From Professional MD to Web MD: How Online Healthcare Information Is Impacting the Physician-Patient Relationship
Madison Henry ’13, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Leila Azarbad, Psychology

The Internet is rapidly changing the relationship between patients and clinicians, as the availability of online information may lead to misinformed patients and a de-professionalization of medicine (Broom, 2005). The purpose of this study was to (a) examine providers’ perspectives about patient Internet usage and (b) assess the level of formal training physicians had received on this topic. Nineteen clinicians at a rural hospital in Illinois were administered questionnaires about the health-related Internet use of their patients, their own Internet use for medical reasons, and the training they received on the topic. Results indicate that although Internet usage has increased, most physicians do not feel this has adversely affected their medical practice. Further, few physicians reported having formal training on this topic. Results of this study will have important implications for healthcare providers as well as those who would like to create formal education on this topic.

Differences in Spanish Second Language Accent Production
Marion Gibney-Desmaison ’13, Spanish
Advisor: Dr. Patricia Bayona, Spanish

This investigation aims to provide a better understanding of the factors that affect accent production in second language speech.  Through recorded interviews with participants directed at their answering questions in Spanish specifically geared toward their interpretation of their own accent compared to native speakers, the study intends to identify differences among accents and provide an explanation as to why they occur. Several factors can influence production in second and third language speech (although this study will focus on Spanish as a second language), including strong influences from one’s native language (Cenoz, 2001).  Analysis of the participants’ answers in Spanish is expected to offer greater insight about differences in spoken accents among English-speaking students of Spanish. The results will be analyzed under the light of theoretical approaches studied in the course Español y Multilingüismo.

A Comparison of Methods Used for the Translation of Non-Equivalent Vocabulary in Japanese Poetry
Mary C. Dickinson ’13, French, Japanese
Advisor: Dr. Fukumi Matsubara, Japanese

Poetry uses a variety of subtle elements, which from a translation standpoint present a unique challenge of capturing these elements in another language while staying true to the original work when presenting it to a reader of another language. The effect of translators trying to overcome this challenge has resulted in the creation of a variety of translations, each with its own distinct features. This study examines the translation of nonequivalent vocabulary in the translation of Japanese poems into English. Through a comparison of several translations, it highlights various techniques for translating nonequivalent vocabulary and tries to determine their role in effectiveness of the overall translation. The techniques are then put into practice through the translation of other poems that contain similar linguistic elements to further an argument for the effectiveness of the individual translation methods.

Emotions in Contemporary Dance
McKenna C. Sheridan ’13, Economics, Finance
Advisor: Dr. Katherine Heller, Mathematics

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of psychological and environmental changes on emotional expression in contemporary dance. Based on preliminary research, several pieces of original choreography were created for an experimental performance. The cast members chosen for this performance learned several pieces of original, contemporary choreography intended to express varying, specific emotions and underwent several psychological and environmental tests to determine any effect on their emotional expression. Data was collected from dancers throughout the rehearsal process and from audience members following a live dance performance. Surveys completed by audience members ascertained how easily they could identify the emotion expressed in each piece. The entirety of the data collected was used to answer the fundamental question: How can different psychological techniques and performance characteristics affect the emotional expression and observation in contemporary dance?   

Museums and Child Development: An Exploration of the Impact Exhibits Have Upon Parent-Child Interplay
Mia Casasanto ’15, Art History
Advisor: Dr. Nicole Rivera, Psychology

Child and parent interaction plays a strong role in child development. Museums offer an influential environment for parents to engage with children in play, and the roles the parent takes on in these interactions can be influenced by the way in which the exhibits are presented within a museum. Too much structure in an exhibit can hinder the interplay that allows parents to take on different roles for the child (Shine & Acosta 2000). This study used qualitative research obtained through interviews with frequent visitors of the DuPage Children’s Museum to explore patterns of use by both children and adults to gain insight on how the space is used for supporting positive social behaviors. The results showed that many parents acted as students of the children in play and relied on the museum as a resource to aid in development. Details of roles and patterns are explored.

A Step in the Wrong Direction: A Study of Foot Tendon Conditions
Michelle Branigan ’13, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Christopher O’Connor, Biology

Overuse of tendon injuries of the foot and ankle are among the most difficult musculoskeletal injuries to treat because physicians often initially misdiagnose these injuries as ankle sprains, which delays proper treatment and rehabilitation. Major tendons of the human foot are exposed to force and stress on a daily basis simply from weight-bearing and normal usage, making these tendons more vulnerable to degeneration and thus susceptible to injury. This study first compares the etiology and pathology of common injuries to five major tendons of the human foot, and then surveys current surgical and rehabilitation protocols for these injuries. Results indicate that repetitive microtrauma and degeneration contribute most to tendinopathies and ruptures, and the most susceptible populations include athletes, obese patients and older patients. Implications for surgical techniques and rehabilitation will be discussed based on an analysis of protocols in conjunction with interviews with health care professionals.

The Fight Against Persecution: The German-Americans and WWI
Michele Moes ’13, German, International Business
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf

During World War I German-Americans were the target of anti-immigrant feelings and persecuted by American citizens and the government. German-American citizens became the enemy along with Germany.  I look into how it was not only the rest of the country that targeted German-Americans but how German-Americans instigated these attacks. I also explore how newspapers, posters, images and articles vilified German-Americans and encouraged persecution and I investigate the context in which this happened. I discovered how state and local laws were enacted that furthered these anti-immigration feelings through the United States. I examine how German-Americans transformed from being respected, assimilated and acculturated Americans to the target of American xenophobia. I also learned how this fear and hostility manifested itself through the eradication of German place names and language and found its zenith in the creation of prison camps and detention centers erected for the German-American.  

The Effect of Introversion/Extroversion, Anxiety and Caffeine Upon Sensitivity to Threat
Michelle L. DePasquale ’14, Psychology
Jillian Brunner ’13, Psychology
Rebecca Kirk ’13, Biochemistry
Nicholar Petkunas ’12, Psychology
Jillian Cadwallader ’13, Psychology
Jessica Ignarski ’13, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Mary Jean Lynch

Previous research has found that introverts develop fear conditioning more quickly than extraverts, and this finding has been attributed to differential sensitivity to reward, nonreward and punishment. We examined how the combination of an external arouser (caffeine) and internal arousal (introversion/extraversion) affect recall of threatening and nonthreatening words. Participants were assigned to the caffeine or decaf condition in a double-blind, block randomization procedure. Participants in the caffeine condition will receive 4 mg caffeine/kg of body weight (roughly the amount of caffeine in two cups of regularly brewed coffee). Participants were given five minutes to complete a word-search task in which both threatening and nonthreatening words were embedded. Preliminary results suggest that introverts detect more threat words and are more sensitive to threat.

Aryan Strength: How the Artistic Aesthetic Promoted by the Nazi Party for the 1936 Olympic Games Revealed Germany’s New National Identity
Molly Gstalter ’13, German
Advisor: Dr. Gregory Wolf, German

The Nazi Party saw the Olympic Games as an opportunity to unveil its new self and future ambitions through different artistic propaganda mediums. As a reaction to the preceding four dominant styles of the time—Dada, Expressionism, Neue Sachlichkeit and Bauhaus—the Nazi Party developed what is known today as Nazi art. The Nazis contrasted the “ungerman” or “degenerate” art forms by refocusing the German mindset back to traditional ideals of beauty, strength and power. As historian Frederic Spotts stated, “like never before, was a clearer example of aesthetics used to promote enslavement and heroic death.” Through the exploration of four artistic mediums—Art, Posters, Film and Architecture—in contrast with the four dominant artistic styles at the time, this study has uncovered how the Nazi’s new aesthetic promoted during the 1936 Olympics exposed the world to the Nazi Party’s new personal ambitions and intentions.

Sequestosome 1/p62 Is Highly Expressed in the Neuroectoderm During Early Stages of Xenopus laevis Development
Monique Feurdean ’14, Biology
Colin Westman ’13, Biology, Spanish
Advisor: Dr. Christopher O’Connor, Biology

The sequestosome 1/p62 is a protein known to have many functions, including protein crosslinking, polyubiquitination and signal transduction of the NF-κB pathway. It is conserved in many organisms. It is typically found in the neurons of developing organisms, raising the possibility that it is linked to the process of neurogenesis. However, the exact function of p62 during neurological development remains unexplored, with very little knowledge about when it is most strongly expressed and how its expression is activated. Using the model organism, Xenopus laevis, this experiment tracked the expression of p62 throughout various stages of embryonic development. The protein was found to be expressed during stages associated with neural development through Western blotting. Immunofluorescence localized p62 to the neural tube of the embryos, implicating it in the process of neurogenesis and making p62 a possible indicator of development.

Heracles Through the Ages: Variations on the Classical Theme
Quinton Hoffert ’13, Classical Civilization
Advisor: Dr. Michael de Brauw, Classics

Many viewers of modern versions of the Hercules story criticize them for their “inauthenticity.” In actuality, a comparison of ancient and 20th century portrayals of Hercules (or Heracles as he is called in Greek sources) shows there is no single, authentic Hercules. Twentieth century versions of Hercules, such as Steve Reeves’ “Hercules Unchained,” “Hercules: the Legendary Journeys” and Disney’s “Hercules” are consistent, focusing on traits such as modesty, kindness and selfless heroism. Ancient versions of Heracles, by contrast, varied greatly: Sophocles (Women of Trachis) made Heracles arrogant; Euripides (Heracles) made him wise but persecuted; and for Aristophanes (Birds) he was a buffoon. In conclusion, modern characterizations are more consistent than ancient ones.

Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity and Perceptions of a Mandatory Health Class Among College Students
Rachel R. Davis ’13, Psychology
Dr. Leila Azarbad, Psychology

Research suggests that physical activity decreases during the transition from high school to college (Gruber, 2008; Irwin, 2007).  Given that lowered physical activity can contribute to obesity, understanding the factors that may interfere with physical activity is highly important. This study examined perceived barriers to physical activity among college students and a student’s perceptions regarding the implementation of a mandatory health class for students that would focus on resources for boosting physical activity and eating healthy on campus. Results and implications will be discussed.

Silver(I)-Catalyzed Regioselective Cyclization: Convenient Access to Substituted Heterocycles
Rachel M. DiPietro ’15, Biology
Juan Perez Jr. ’14, Biochemistry
Advisor: Dr. Biswajit Saha, Chemistry

Silver salts have a mild Lewis acidity and can be used for various organic reactions. We have developed a methodology for the cyclization of epoxides and alkenes to generate five-membered phenyl-substituted heterocyclic molecules using silver(I) salts as catalysts. Silvertrifluoromethanesulfonate (silver triflate) was the most utilized silver catalyst, successfully converting 100% of aromatic epoxide to a five-membered heterocyclic compound using various solvents. Notable catalyst concentrations were successful as low as 1 mole percent. To control for product chirality, 5 mole percent (S)-BINAP in addition to 5 mole percent silver triflate was used under an argon atmosphere and successfully converted aromatic epoxide to product. Chirality has yet to be determined for this preliminary result. Proton NMR analysis confirmed product formation. This strategy using silver salt catalysts allows for the production of five-membered oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds using an efficient and environmentally benign catalytic cyclization reaction under mild conditions.  

Elucidating the Role of YAK1 in Signal Transduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Samantha DeWerff ’13, Biochemistry
Scott Blaszak ’14, Biology
Advisor: Dr. Stephen Johnston, Biology

The DYRK family of kinases is associated with a number of diseases. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, YAK1 is homologous to DYRK1a. By investigating the functions of YAK1 in S. cerevisiae, we may elucidate how DYRK1 is involved with diseases. We investigated proteins hypothesized to be involved with YAK1p mediated signal transduction in response to nutrient limitation. Previous studies have determined four transcription factors that appear to possibly bind upstream of YAK1. Using deletions of these transcription factors, we quantified Yak1 protein levels by immunoblotting to determine which of the factors affected YAK1 expression. In S. cerevisae, Mss11p is hypothesized to be downstream of Yak1p leading to filamentous growth due to an outside stimuli. Mss11p, a transcription factor, was shown to interact with Yak1p through the yeast two hybrid system. Our results suggest that Mss11p is upstream of Yak1p and there is a possibility of divergent pathways leading to filamentous growth.

The Effects of Military Uniforms on Females’ Rating of Attractiveness
Sarah A. Morton ’13, Psychology
Advisor: Dr. Jonathan Mueller, Psychology

Do women really “love a man in uniform”? Little research has been done on perceptions of military uniforms and no research has been conducted in regard to attraction of these uniforms. Participants evaluated one of three men applying for a security position: one man in an army field uniform, one in an army dress uniform, and one in nonmilitary attire.  Participants provided ratings of attributes connected to the uniform (physical attractiveness, trustworthiness, intelligence). I hypothesize that both men in military uniforms will receive higher ratings in attractiveness and other positive attributes than the man in nonuniform attire. I also hypothesize that the overall highest scores will be given to the man in the military dress uniform. This information will be relevant for understanding romantic attractions as well as attire-based attraction in other settings.  

Green Chemistry Study of BASIL Techniques
Raymond Koenig ’14, Chemistry
Sarah Scurto ’14, Chemistry
Michael Schelthoff ’13, Chemistry
Advisor: Dr. Paul Brandt, Chemistry

BASIL (Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids) is a technique developed by BASF to eliminate unnecessary solvents and tedious workups from reactions by utilizing methylimidazole (MeIm). MeIm works as an acid-scavenger, protonating to become an imidazolium salt. These salts have melting points near room temperature, meaning once melted they leave the reactive solution and form two separate phases. As the two layers are isolated by physical separation and successful reactions are completed in seconds, solvents and workups are unnecessary. The present research sought to determine the limitations of the BASIL technique in forming P-O, C-N, C-S and Si-N bonds. The technique was found to be most successful in reactions forming P-O and C-S bonds and less so with Si-N and C-N. Determining the systems MeIm is suitable for will greatly enhance its usefulness and utility in the field of green chemistry.

The Triumph in Modern Rome
Taylor J. Hagen ’13, Classical Civilization, History
Advisor: Dr. Michael de Brauw, Classics

Caesar’s Commentarii De Bello Gallico contains only one personal anecdote. Through analysis of this passage and research conducted in Roman exemplarity, I have come to the conclusion that this is an exemplum, a moral anecdote meant to inspire and guide the actions of others. Exempla, in Livy for example, focus on greatness in the past, a time when, as the Roman historian Sallust puts it, Romans fought enemies from outside and competed with themselves for glory. Caesar’s age, however, was a time of Romans fighting amongst themselves and pursuing their own interests. Caesar was named part of a “three-headed monster” for this very reason. The story in De Bello Gallico 5.44, however, tells of two contemporary Romans competing for glory in the manner of Livy’s Horatius Cocles, Rome’s most important exemplum of valor. With this exemplum, Caesar rebuts this charge. He argues that the morals of the old days are still alive and embodied in his legions. By applying an understanding of Roman exemplarity, we find a previously unnoticed rhetorical strategy in Caesar’s literary work.